Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome presenting as chylothorax in a patient with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection: a case report
1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital/I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
2 Department of Critical Care Medicine, E-Da Hospital/I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
3 Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
4 Tropical Medicine Research Institute, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
5 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
6 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
7 Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:321 doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-321Published: 8 November 2010
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at risk for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection. The advent of antiretroviral therapy restores immunity in HIV-infected patients, but predisposes patients to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).
A 25-year-old HIV-infected male presented with fever, productive cough, and body weight loss for 2 months. His CD4 cell count was 11 cells/μl and HIV-1 viral load was 315,939 copies/ml. Antituberculosis therapy was initiated after the diagnosis of pulmonary TB. One week after antituberculosis therapy, antiretroviral therapy was started. However, multiple mediastinal lymphadenopathies and chylothorax developed. Adequate drainage of the chylothorax, suspension of antiretroviral therapy, and continued antituberculosis therapy resulted in successful treatment and good outcome.
Chylothorax is a rare manifestation of TB-associated IRIS in HIV-infected patients. Careful monitoring for development of IRIS during treatment of HIV-TB coinfection is essential to minimize the associated morbidity and mortality.