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Open Access Research article

Eligibility for and outcome of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in a cohort of HIV-infected people in Spain

Asuncion Diaz1*, Mercedes Diez2, Maria Jose Bleda1, Mikel Aldamiz3, Miguel Camafort4, Xabier Camino5, Concepcion Cepeda6, Asuncion Costa6, Oscar Ferrero7, Paloma Geijo8, Jose Antonio Iribarren5, Santiago Moreno9, Maria Elena Moreno9, Pablo Labarga10, Javier Pinilla10, Joseba Portu3, Federico Pulido6, Carmen Rosa8, Juan Miguel Santamaría7, Mauricio Telenti11, Luis Trapiella11, Monica Trastoy12 and Pompeyo Viciana12

Author Affiliations

1 Unidad de Epidemiología del VIH/SIDA, Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

2 Secretaria del Plan Nacional sobre el sida, Ministerio de Sanidad y Política Social, Madrid, Spain

3 Servicio Medicina Interna, Hospital Txagorritxu,Vitoria, Spain

4 Servicio Medicina Interna, Hospital Mora d'Ebre, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria "Pere Virgili", Universidad "Rovira i Virgili", Mora d'Ebre, Spain

5 Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Ntra Sra de Aranzazu, San Sebastián, Spain

6 Unidad VIH, Hospital Doce de Octubre, Madrid, Spain

7 Servicio Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital de Basurto, Bilbao, Spain

8 Servicio Medicina Interna, Hospital Virgen de la Luz, Cuenca, Spain

9 Servicio de Enfermedades Infeccciosas, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain

10 Servicio de Medicina Interna, Hospital San Millán, Logroño, Spain

11 Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain

12 Servicio Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, Spain

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:267  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-267

Published: 14 September 2010

Abstract

Background

Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (TLTBI) in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, but few studies have investigated the operational aspects of implementing TLTBI in the co-infected population.The study objectives were to describe eligibility for TLTBI as well as treatment prescription, initiation and completion in an HIV-infected Spanish cohort and to investigate factors associated with treatment completion.

Methods

Subjects were prospectively identified between 2000 and 2003 at ten HIV hospital-based clinics in Spain. Data were obtained from clinical records. Associations were measured using the odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results

A total of 1242 subjects were recruited and 846 (68.1%) were evaluated for TLTBI. Of these, 181 (21.4%) were eligible for TLTBI either because they were tuberculin skin test (TST) positive (121) or because their TST was negative/unknown but they were known contacts of a TB case or had impaired immunity (60). Of the patients eligible for TLTBI, 122 (67.4%) initiated TLTBI: 99 (81.1%) were treated with isoniazid for 6, 9 or 12 months; and 23 (18.9%) with short-course regimens including rifampin plus isoniazid and/or pyrazinamide. In total, 70 patients (57.4%) completed treatment, 39 (32.0%) defaulted, 7 (5.7%) interrupted treatment due to adverse effects, 2 developed TB, 2 died, and 2 moved away. Treatment completion was associated with having acquired HIV infection through heterosexual sex as compared to intravenous drug use (OR:4.6; 95% CI:1.4-14.7) and with having taken rifampin and pyrazinamide for 2 months as compared to isoniazid for 9 months (OR:8.3; 95% CI:2.7-24.9).

Conclusions

A minority of HIV-infected patients eligible for TLTBI actually starts and completes a course of treatment. Obstacles to successful implementation of this intervention need to be addressed.