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Open Access Research article

Assessing the relationship between HIV infection and cervical cancer in Côte d'Ivoire: A case-control study

Georgette Adjorlolo-Johnson1*, Elizabeth R Unger5, Edith Boni-Ouattara1, Kadidiata Touré-Coulibaly2, Chantal Maurice1, Suzanne D Vernon5, Marcel Sissoko3, Alan E Greenberg14, Stefan Z Wiktor16 and Terence L Chorba14

Author Affiliations

1 Projet RETRO-CI, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Global HIV/AIDS Program, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

2 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Treichville, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

3 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire

4 National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

5 National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

6 National Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:242  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-242

Published: 17 August 2010

Abstract

Background

The association between HIV infection and invasive cervical cancer that has been reported may reflect differential prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection or uncontrolled confounding. We conducted a case-control study in a West African population to assess the relationship between HIV infection and invasive cervical cancer, taking into account HPV infection and other potential risk factors for cervical cancer.

Methods

Women with invasive cervical cancer (cases) or normal cervical cytology (controls) were recruited in a hospital-based case-control study in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in logistic regression analyses controlling for important cofactors.

Results

HIV infection was noted in 22/132 (16.7%) cases and 10/120 (8.3%) controls (p = 0.048). High-risk HPV infection was detected in cervical tumor samples from 89.4% of case-participants and in cervical cytology samples in 31.1% of control-participants. In logistic regression analysis, HIV infection was associated with cervical cancer in women with HPV (OR 3.4; 95% CI 1.1-10.8). Among women aged ≤ 40 years, risk factors for cervical cancer were high-risk HPV infection (OR 49.3; 95% CI 8.2-295.7); parity > 2 (OR 7.0; 95% CI 1.9-25.7) and HIV infection (OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.5-13.6). Among women aged > 40 years, high-risk HPV infection (OR 23.5; 95% CI 9.1-60.6) and parity > 2 (OR 5.5; 95% CI 2.3-13.4), but association with HIV infection was not statistically significant.

Conclusions

These data support the hypothesis that HIV infection is a cofactor for cervical cancer in women with HPV infection, and, as in all populations, the need for promoting cervical screening in populations with high prevalence of HIV infection.