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Open Access Research article

Prevalence, estimated HIV-1 incidence and viral diversity among people seeking voluntary counseling and testing services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Carlos A Velasco de Castro125, Beatriz Grinsztejn2, Valdiléa G Veloso2, Francisco I Bastos3, José H Pilotto124 and Mariza G Morgado1*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratório de AIDS & Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

2 Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

3 Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

4 Hospital Geral de Nova Iguaçu, Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

5 Laboratório de Virologia, Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:224  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-224

Published: 28 July 2010

Abstract

Background

BED-EIA HIV-1 Incidence Test (BED-CEIA) has been described as a tool to discriminate recent (RS) from long-term (LTS) seroconversion of HIV-1 infection, contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic over time. This study determined the prevalence, estimated incidence and HIV-1 subtype infection among individuals seeking testing in Voluntary Counseling and Testing centers (VCTs) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Methods

Demographics and behavioral data were obtained from 434 individuals, diagnosed as HIV-positive among 9,008 volunteers screened from November 2004 to October 2005 in three VCTs located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area, Brazil. BED-CEIA protocol was performed to identify RS. DNA samples from RS and a subset of LTS (under a proportion of 1:2) were selected for gp120 C2-V3 and pol (protease and reverse transcriptase) regions genomic sequencing.

Results

Overall HIV-1 prevalence was 4.8%. Sixty-one of 434 seropositive individuals were classified as RS, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.68%/year (95%CI 1.26% -2.10%). Estimated incidence between Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) was 11 times higher than among heterosexual men and 55% of the new cases were identified in volunteers aged 25-40 years. A similar distribution of different HIV-1 subtypes was found among RS and LTS.

Conclusions

Our data suggest that prevention for MSM remains a challenge and efforts focusing on prevention targeting this population should be prioritized. No significant changes in HIV-1 subtypes were observed among the RS and LTS subgroups. One case of HIV-1 AUK (pol)/A (env) recombinant genome was detected for the first time in Brazil.