Open Access Research article

Prevalence, estimated HIV-1 incidence and viral diversity among people seeking voluntary counseling and testing services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Carlos A Velasco de Castro125, Beatriz Grinsztejn2, Valdiléa G Veloso2, Francisco I Bastos3, José H Pilotto124 and Mariza G Morgado1*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratório de AIDS & Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

2 Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

3 Instituto de Comunicação e Informação Científica e Tecnológica em Saúde, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

4 Hospital Geral de Nova Iguaçu, Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

5 Laboratório de Virologia, Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Instituto Fernandes Figueira, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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BMC Infectious Diseases 2010, 10:224  doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-224

Published: 28 July 2010



BED-EIA HIV-1 Incidence Test (BED-CEIA) has been described as a tool to discriminate recent (RS) from long-term (LTS) seroconversion of HIV-1 infection, contributing to a better understanding of the dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic over time. This study determined the prevalence, estimated incidence and HIV-1 subtype infection among individuals seeking testing in Voluntary Counseling and Testing centers (VCTs) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.


Demographics and behavioral data were obtained from 434 individuals, diagnosed as HIV-positive among 9,008 volunteers screened from November 2004 to October 2005 in three VCTs located in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan area, Brazil. BED-CEIA protocol was performed to identify RS. DNA samples from RS and a subset of LTS (under a proportion of 1:2) were selected for gp120 C2-V3 and pol (protease and reverse transcriptase) regions genomic sequencing.


Overall HIV-1 prevalence was 4.8%. Sixty-one of 434 seropositive individuals were classified as RS, corresponding to an incidence rate of 1.68%/year (95%CI 1.26% -2.10%). Estimated incidence between Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) was 11 times higher than among heterosexual men and 55% of the new cases were identified in volunteers aged 25-40 years. A similar distribution of different HIV-1 subtypes was found among RS and LTS.


Our data suggest that prevention for MSM remains a challenge and efforts focusing on prevention targeting this population should be prioritized. No significant changes in HIV-1 subtypes were observed among the RS and LTS subgroups. One case of HIV-1 AUK (pol)/A (env) recombinant genome was detected for the first time in Brazil.