Table 3

Comparison of the performance* of the Widal test for typhoid fever diagnosis by number of days of fever** prior to admission

Widal titer

Sensitivity (95%CI)

Specificity (95%CI)

Positive Predictive Value

Negative Predictive Value


≤ 5 days fever (n = 1123)


TH ≥1:80

4/6, 0.67

(0.30-0.90)

1102/1117, 0.99

(0.98-0.99)

4/19, 0.21

1102/1104, 1.00

TH ≥1:160

3/6, 0.50

(0.19-0.81)

1106/1117, 0.99

(0.98-0.99)

3/14, 0.21

1106/1109, 1.00

TH ≥1:320

2/6, 0.33

(0.10-0.70)

1110/1117, 0.99

(0.99-1.00)

2/9, 0.22

1110/1114, 1.00

TO ≥1:80

4/6, 0.67

(0.30-0.90)

1100/1117, 0.98

(0.98-0.99)

4/21, 0.19

1100/1102, 1.00

TO ≥1:160

3/6, 0.50

(0.19-0.81)

1107/1117, 0.99

(0.98-1.00)

3/13, 0.23

1107/1110, 1.00

TO ≥1:320

1/6, 0.17

(0.03-0.56)

1112/1117, 1.00

(0.99-1.00)

1/6, 0.17

1112/1117, 1.00


> 5 days fever (n = 554)


TH ≥1:80

8/10, 0.80

(0.49-0.94)

525/544, 0.97

(0.95-0.98)

8/27, 0.30

525/527, 1.00

TH ≥1:160

8/10, 0.80

(0.49-0.94)

530/544, 0.97

(0.96-0.98)

8/22, 0.36

530/532, 1.00

TH ≥1:320

4/10, 0.40

(0.17-0.69)

533/544, 0.98

(0.96-0.99)

4/15, 0.27

533/539, 0.99

TO ≥1:80

7/10, 0.70

(0.40-0.89)

528/544, 0.97

(0.95-0.98)

7/23, 0.30

528/531, 0.99

TO ≥1:160

7/10, 0.70

(0.40-0.89)

530/544, 0.97

(0.96-0.98)

7/21, 0.33

530/533, 0.99

TO ≥1:320

5/10, 0.50

(0.24-0.76)

537/544, 0.99

(0.97-0.99)

5/12, 0.42

537/542, 0.99


*The values were calculated using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases (group 1; n = 16) as the true positives and those cases from which S. typhi were not isolated from blood culture (groups 2, 3, and 4; n = 1664) as the true negatives. **Three patients whose fever duration was unknown were excluded from the analysis.

Ley et al. BMC Infectious Diseases 2010 10:180   doi:10.1186/1471-2334-10-180

Open Data