Table 4

Cognitive function in the US and England, 2002

Variable

Model 1

Model 2

Model 3

Model 4


Country (England = Ref)

1.43* (1.3 – 1.6)

1.46* (1.3 – 1.6)

1.30* (1.1 – 1.4)

1.35* (1.2 – 1.5)


Age

65 – 74

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

75 – 84

-1.70* (-1.9 – -1.5)

-1.63* (-1.8 – -1.4)

-1.55* (-1.8 – -1.4)

≥ 85

-3.85* (-4.2 – -3.5)

-3.61* (-3.9 – -3.3)

-3.52* (-3.8 – -3.2)


Female gender

1.07* (.9 – 1.3)

1.37* (1.2 – 1.5)

1.32* (1.1 – 1.5)


Education

Low

Ref.

Ref.

Middle

.96* (.7 – 1.2)

.94* (.7 – 1.1)

High

1.48* (1.2 – 1.7)

1.45* (1.2 – 1.7)


Net Worth (2002 $s)

≤ 80,000

Ref.

Ref.

80,001 – 262,000

.98* (.7 – 1.2)

.91* (.6 – 1.2)

> 262,000

1.38* (1.1 – 1.6)

1.26* (1.0 – 1.5)


Cardiovascular Risks

Stroke

-1.0* (-1.4 – -.6)

Diabetes

-.39* (-.6 – -.1)

Hypertension

-.04 (-.2 – .1)

Heart disease

-.19 (-.4 – .1)


Variable

Model 5

Model 6

Model 7

Model 8


Country (England = Ref)

1.33* (1.2 – 1.5)

1.16* (1.0 – 1.3)

1.43* (1.3 – 1.6)

1.43* (1.3 – 1.6)


Age

65 – 74

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

75 – 84

-1.56* (-1.8 – -1.4)

-1.53* (-1.7 – -1.3)

-1.50* (-1.7 – -1.3)

-1.5* (-1.7 – -1.3)

≥ 85

-3.52* (-3.8 – -3.2)

-3.45* (-3.7 – -3.2)

-3.37* (-3.6 – -3.1)

-3.4* (-3.6 – -3.1)


Female gender

1.31* (1.1 – 1.5)

1.37* (1.2 – 1.6)

1.43* (1.2 – 1.6)

1.4* (1.2 – 1.6)


Education

Low

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

Middle

.94 (.7 – 1.2)

.89 (.7 – 1.1)

.82 (.60 – 1.0)

.79 (.6 – 1.0)

High

1.45* (1.2 – 1.7)

1.39* (1.1 – 1.7)

1.31* (1.0 – 1.6)

1.3* (1.0 – 1.6)


Net Worth (2002 $s)

≤ 82,000

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

82,001 – 262,000

.90 (.6 – 1.2)

.83 (.6 – 1.1)

.77 (.5 – 1.0)

.73 (.5 – 1.0)

> 262,000

1.25* (1.0 – 1.5)

1.15 (.9 – 1.4)

1.04 (.8 – 1.3)

1.0 (.8 – 1.3)


Cardiovascular Risks

Stroke

-.99* (-1.4 – -.6)

-.96* (-1.3 – -.6)

-.91* (-1.3 – -.6)

-.89* (-1.2 – -.6)

Diabetes

-.12 (-.6 – .4)

-.11 (-.6 – .4)

-.07 (-.5 – .4)

-.01 (-.46 – .43)

Hypertension

-.55* (-.9 – -.2)

-.46* (-.8 – -.1)

-.46* (-.8 – -.1)

-.49* (-.84 – -.15)

Heart disease

-.19 (-.4 – .1)

-.13 (-.4 – .12)

-.10 (-.3 – .1)

-.10 (-.33 – .13)


Hypertension Treatment

.56* (.2 – .9)

.50* (.1 – .8)

.50* (.1 – .8)

.52* (.2 – .9)


Diabetes Treatment

No Treatment

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

Only Oral Medication

-.29 (-.8 – .2)

-.28 (-.8 – .2)

-.25 (-.7 – .2)

-.25 (-.7 – .2)

Insulin +/- Oral Med

-.57 (-1.3 – .1)

-.56 (-1.2 – .1)

-.49 (-1.2 – .2)

-.50 (-1.2 – .2)


CES-D symptoms

0

Ref.

Ref.

Ref.

1–3

-.44* (-.6 – -.3)

-.41* (-.6 – -.2)

-.42* (-.6 – -.2)

4–8

-.93* (-1.2 – -.7)

-.88* (-1.1 – -.6)

-.88* (-1.1 – -.6)


Alcohol

0

Ref

Ref

< 1

0.74* (.5 – 1.0)

0.75* (.5 – 1.0)

>1 to 2

0.71* (.4 – 1.0)

0.72* (.4 – 1.0)

>2

0.50* (.2 – .8)

0.51* (.2 – .8)


Smoking Status

Never

Ref.

Former

-.11 (-.3 – .1)

Current

-.20 (-.5 – .1)


Other Chronic Conditions

Lung disease

.06 (-.2 – .3)

Cancer

.11 (.-1 – .3)


* P <.05

Langa et al. BMC Geriatrics 2009 9:23   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-9-23

Open Data