Interactions between Social/ behavioral factors and ADRB2 genotypes may be associated with health at advanced ages in China
1 Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Geriatrics Division of School of Medicine, Duke University, Box 3003 Durham, NC 27710, USA
2 Center for Healthy Aging and Development Studies, Duke University and National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing, China
3 School of Business, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China
4 Department of Human Population Genetics, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking University, Beijing, China
5 Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
6 Department of Sociology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
7 Business School, Xiang Tan University, Xiangtan, China
8 Institute of Population Research, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
9 Department of Sociology, Peking University, Beijing, China
10 Gene, Cognition and Psychosis Program, National Institute of Mental Health and Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, MD, USA
11 Center for Human Genetics, Medical School, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA
12 National Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing, China
13 School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China
BMC Geriatrics 2013, 13:91 doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-91Published: 9 September 2013
Existing literature indicates that ADRB2 gene is associated with health and longevity, but none of previous studies investigated associations of carrying the ADRB2 minor alleles and interactions between ADRB2 genotypes and social/behavioral factors(GxE) with health outcomes at advanced ages. This study intends to fill in this research gap.
We conducted an exploratory analysis, using longitudinal survey phenotype/genotype data from 877 oldest-old aged 90+. To estimate association of GxE interactions with health outcome, adjusted for the potential correlation between genotypes and social/behavioral factors and various other potentially confounding factors, we develop and test an innovative three-step procedure which combines logistic regression and structural equation methods.
Interaction between regular exercise and carrying rs1042718 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with good cognitive function; interaction between regular exercise and carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with self-reported good health; and interaction between social-leisure activities and carrying rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and positively associated with self-reported good health. Carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor alleles is significantly and negatively associated with negative emotion, but the ADRB2 SNPs are not significantly associated with cognitive function and self-reported health. Our structural equation analysis found that, adjusted for the confounding effects of correlation of the ADRB2 SNPs with negative emotion, interaction between negative emotion and carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor allele is significantly and negatively associated with cognitive function. The positive association of regular exercise and social-leisure activities with cognitive function and self-reported health, and negative association of negative emotion with cognitive function, were much stronger among carriers of rs1042718 or rs1042719 alleles, compared to the non-carriers.
The results indicate significant positive associations of interactions between social/behavioral factors and the ADRB2 genotypes with health outcomes of cognitive function and self-reported health, and negative associations of carrying rs1042718 or rs1042719 minor alleles with negative emotion, at advanced ages in China. Our findings are exploratory rather than causal conclusions. This study implies that near-future health promotion programs considering individuals’ genetic profiles, with appropriate protection of privacy/confidentiality, would yield increased benefits and reduced costs to the programs and their participants.