Table 2

Association between selected variables and falls among institutionalized older adults in Madrid, Spain
Variables Crude RR RRa (95% CI) RRb (95% CI)
Male gender 1.21 1.37 (0.74-2.53) 1.12 (0.60-2.07)
Age (per 5 y) 1.02 0.95 (0.81-1.11) 0.86 (0.71-1.03)
Marital status (no spouse) 1.00 1.27 (0.72-2.26) 1.71 (0.93-3.17)
Education
 Less than primary 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.27 1.22 (0.63-2.37) 1.06 (0.53-2.12)
 Secondary or higher 1.30 1.09 (0.49-2.45) 1.17 (0.54-2.52)
Length of stay (years)
  0-2 1.00 1.00 1.00
  3-5 1.05 1.11 (0.61-2.02) 1.34 (0.72-2.50)
  ≥ 6 1.38 1.50 (0.78-2.87) 1.31 (0.68-2.53)
Facility size (per 50 beds) 1.01 1.03 (0.94-1.13) 1.01 (0.93-1.10)
Facility
 Public 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Subsidized 1.69 1.14 (0.59-2.20) 1.41(0.62-3.20)
 Private 1.29 1.02 (0.49-2.14) 1.13 (0.57-2.23)
No. of diseases (per 1) 1.40 1.40 (1.27-1.54) 1.32 (1.17-1.50)
No. of medications (per 1) 1.27 1.19 (1.06-1.33) 1.07 (0.95-1.21)
Antidepressant use 3.30 3.40 (1.65-7.04) 2.32 (1.22-4.40)
Anxiolytic use 1.73 1.64 (0.80-3.36) 1.48 (0.75-2.91)
Hypnotic use 0.56 0.50 (0.23-1.08) 0.62 (0.24-1.56)
Antipsychotic use 1.26 0.73 (0.36-1.49) 0.92 (0.47-1.82)
Functional dependence
  Independent (100c) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Mild (91-99) 2.24 2.16 (0.70-6.60) 1.89 (0.60-5.97)
  Moderate (61-90) 3.58 2.76 (1.19-6.37) 2.39 (0.87-6.55)
  Severe (21-60) 6.17 5.03 (1.77-14.28) 3.02 (1.17-7.78)
 Total (0-20) 1.83 0.89 (0.24-3.25) 0.86 (0.26-2.82)
Use of cane 1.59 2.07 (0.93-4.61) 1.55 (0.79-3.07)
Use of walker 2.29 1.33 (0.63-2.80) 0.91 (0.46-1.82)
Behavioural problems 1.98 1.32 (0.64-2.74) 1.09 (0.56-2.11)
Cognitive status
  Normal (≤2d) 1.00 1.00 1.00
  Mild (3–4) 1.10 0.77 (0.35-1.70) 0.78 (0.33-1.83)
  Moderate (5–7) 1.52 0.90 (0.42-1.94) 0.68 (0.29-1.60)
  Severe (≥8) 1.77 1.85 (0.58-5.87) 2.15 (0.82-5.65)
Vision (moderate/severe) 1.22 0.89 (0.51-1.57) 0.90 (0.55-1.47)
Hearing (moderate/severe) 0.97 0.90 (0.38-2.13) 1.11 (0.49-2.54)
Insomnia 1.21 1.16 (0.63-2.15) 0.88 (0.50-1.55)
Urinary incontinence 3.42 2.89 (1.48-5.65) 2.56 (1.32-4.94)
Physical restraint 1.11 0.74 (0.28-1.93) 0.63 (0.29-1.36)
Self-rated health (fair/poor/very poor) 2.00 1.65 (0.93-2.95) 1.34 (0.74-2.41)
Physician-rated health (fair/poor/very poor) 2.31 2.11 (1.18-3.78) 0.97 (0.55-1.71)
Depressive symptoms (per 1 GDS point) 1.14 1.06 (0.95-1.19) 1.01 (0.92-1.11)

Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; GDS = Geriatric Depression Scale; RR = rate ratio.

a Rate ratio adjusted for age, sex, cognitive status, and functional dependence.

b Additionally adjusted for number of diseases and number of medications (for psychotropic the particular index drug was excluded from the count).

c Barthel Index score.

d Pfeiffer's Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire score.

Damián et al.

Damián et al. BMC Geriatrics 2013 13:6   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-6

Open Data