Table 4

Factors related to VNS use after stratified care levels
Lower care-needs level group Higher care-needs level group
VNS non-use (n = 1007) VNS use (n = 60) χ2 p-value VNS non-use (n = 163) VNS use (n = 46) χ2 p-value
n % n % n % n %
Sex
Female 788 94.9 42 5.1 2.2318 0.1352 83 78.3 23 21.7 0.0122 0.9122
Male 219 92.4 18 7.6 80 77.7 23 22.3
Age
< 75 134 93.7 9 6.3 0.1399 0.7084 52 83.9 10 16.1 1.7758 0.1827
75≦ 873 94.5 51 5.5 111 75.5 36 24.5
Income Level
Lower income level1 965 94.6 55 5.4 0.2698 151 79.5 39 20.5 4.6317 0.0314*
Higher income level2 35 89.7 4 10.3 7 53.9 6 46.2
Conditions that caused a need for LTC
Respiratory or heart disease 50 83.3 10 16.7 0.0011** 9 75.0 3 25.0 0.7249
Others 951 95.1 49 4.9 154 78.6 42 21.4
Regular hospital visits before entry into the LTCI
Yes 400 93.2 29 6.8 1.7467 0.1863 92 74.2 32 25.8 2.5607 0.1096
No 607 95.1 31 4.9 71 83.5 14 16.5
Period of needing care
< 2 years 463 96.3 18 3.7 5.8298 52 80.0 13 20.0 0.1893 0.6635
2 years≦ 530 92.8 41 7.2 109 77.3 32 22.7
Caregiver’s sex
Female 384 91.4 36 8.6 2.1439 0.1431 127 77.3 38 22.7 0.4310 0.5115
Male 182 94.8 10 5.2 28 82.4 6 17.7
Caregiver/applicant dyad
Wife/Husband (living with) 190 92.6 15 7.3 1.5985 0.2061 76 76.8 23 23.2 0.3554 0.5511
Others 787 94.9 42 5.1 85 80.2 21 19.8
Clients living with family or not
Living alone 498 96.3 19 3.7 7.0986 0.0077** 18 81.8 4 18.2 0.1730 0.6775
Living with family 497 92.6 40 7.5 145 78.0 41 22.0
Corporation type of care management agency
Medical 259 91.8 23 8.2 4.6333 0.0314* 57 76.0 18 24.0 0.2700 0.6033
Non-medical 748 95.3 37 4.7 106 79.1 28 20.9
Home-help service use
Yes 319 92.7 25 7.3 2.5861 0.1078 57 78.1 16 21.9 0.0006 0.9813
No 688 95.2 35 4.8 106 77.9 30 20.1

* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01.

† Fisher’s exact test, other using the chi-squared test.

1 Lower income level: not paying personal income tax.

2 Higher income level: paying personal income tax.

Kashiwagi et al.

Kashiwagi et al. BMC Geriatrics 2013 13:1   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-1

Open Data