Table 2

Characteristics of study participants by use of VNS (N = 1,276)
All VNS χ2 p-value
Non-use Use
N % n % n %
All 1276 100 1170 91.7 106 8.3
Sex
Female 936 73.4 871 93.1 65 6.9 8.5645 0.0034**
Male 340 26.7 299 87.9 41 12.1
Age
< 65 12 1.0 11 91.7 1 8.3 0.9729
65–74 159 13.5 144 90.6 15 9.4
75–84 551 46.8 511 92.7 40 7.3
85≦ 456 38.7 413 90.6 43 9.4
Household Income Level
Lower income level 1210 95.9 1116 92.2 94 7.8 8.6624 0.0032**1
Income level 2 856 67.8 791 92.4 65 7.6
Income level 3 354 28.1 325 91.8 29 8.2
Higher income level(paying personal tax) 52 4.1 42 80.8 10 19.2
Income level 4 40 3.1 33 82.5 7 17.5
Income level 5 12 1.0 9 75.0 3 25.0
Care-Needs Level
Lower care-needs level 1067 83.6 1007 94.4 60 5.6 < 0.0001**2
Support-requested Level 305 28.6 297 97.4 8 2.6
Care-Needs Level 1 577 45.2 547 94.8 30 5.2
Care-Needs Level 2 185 14.5 163 88.1 22 11.9
Higher care-needs level 209 16.4 163 78.0 46 22.0
Care-Needs Level 3 98 7.7 83 84.7 15 15.3
Care-Needs Level 4 65 5.1 53 81.5 12 18.5
Care-Needs Level 5 46 3.6 27 58.7 19 41.3
Conditions that caused a need for LTC
Respiratory or heart disease 72 5.7 59 81.9 13 19.1 9.8439 0.0017**3
Heart disease 47 3.7 44 93.6 3 6.4
Respiratory disease 25 2.0 15 60.0 10 40.0
Others 1196 94.3 1105 92.4 91 7.6
Stroke 318 25.1 283 89.0 35 11.0
Fracture 73 5.8 72 98.6 1 1.4
Rheumatism 300 23.7 285 95.0 15 5.0
Incurable disease 38 3.0 34 89.5 4 10.5
Aging 105 8.0 92 90.2 10 9.8
Dementia 95 7.5 88 92.6 7 7.4
Others 268 21.1 249 92.9 19 7.1
Unclear 2 0.2 2 100.0 0 0.0
Regular hospital visits before entry to the LTCI
Yes 553 43.3 492 89.0 61 11.0 9.5041 0.0021**
No 723 56.7 678 93.8 45 6.2
Period of needing care
< 2 years 546 43.4 515 94.3 31 5.7 0.0035*4
< 1 year 168 13.3 160 95.2 8 4.8
1 year≦, < 2 years 378 30.1 355 93.9 23 6.1
2 years≦ 712 56.6 639 89.8 73 10.2
2 years≦, < 3 years 146 11.6 133 91.1 13 8.9
3 years≦, < 5 years 213 16.9 185 86.8 28 13.2
5 years≦ 353 28.1 321 90.9 32 9.1
Caregiver’s sex
Female 587 72.2 513 87.4 74 12.6 5.0630 0.0244*
Male 226 27.8 210 92.9 16 7.1
Caregiver’s Age
< 65 30 3.7 25 83.3 5 16.7 0.7008
65–74 399 49.3 361 90.5 38 9.5
75–84 211 26.1 181 85.8 30 14.2
85≦ 169 20.9 152 89.4 17 10.1
Caregiver/applicant dyad
Wife/Husband (living with) 304 24.5 266 87.5 38 12.5 10.1729 0.0014**5
Others 935 75.6 872 93.3 63 6.7
Son/Daughter (living with) 178 14.4 162 91.0 16 9.0
Daughter/Son-in-law (living with) 85 6.9 76 89.4 9 10.6
Other relatives living together 16 1.3 15 93.8 1 6.3
Others 656 53.0 619 94.4 37 5.6
Clients living with family or not
Living alone 539 42.7 516 95.7 23 4.3 19.6464 < 0.0001**
Living with family 723 57.3 642 88.8 81 11.2
Corporation type of care management agency
Medical 357 28.0 316 88.5 41 11.5 6.5698 0.0104*6
Non-medical 919 72.0 854 92.9 65 7.1
Social 773 60.6 721 93.3 52 6.7
Others 146 11.4 133 91.1 13 8.9
Home-Help Service use
Yes 417 32.7 376 90.2 41 9.8 1.8910 0.1691
No 859 67.3 794 92.4 65 7.6

* p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 † Wilcoxon rank sum test, other using the chi-squared test.

1 Lower income level versus Higher income level.

2 Lower care-needs level versus Higher care-needs level.

3 Respiratory or heart disease versus Others: classification utilizing the point of view of nursing care.

4 < 2 years versus 2 years≦.

5 Wife/Husband versus Others.

6 Medical versus Non-medical.

Kashiwagi et al.

Kashiwagi et al. BMC Geriatrics 2013 13:1   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-13-1

Open Data