Table 2

Association of factors with warfarin prescribing

Category

Factor

Direction of association (at 95% confidence)

0 = none + = positive - = negative

Association (multivariate adjusted) (OR, 95% CI)

Endpoint

Study Condition

Study


Admission

Admitted from hospital

+

OR = 1.16

(1.02-1.31)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.12

(0.97-1.29)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Age

65-74

0

OR = 0.98

(0.61-1.57)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


75-84

0

OR = 0.98

(0.61-1.58)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


0

OR = 1.13

(0.98-1.31)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.99

(0.94-1.04)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


0

OR = 1.01

(0.86-1.19)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


≥ 85

0

OR = 1.13

(0.70-1.82)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


0

OR = 1.07

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


+

OR = 1.23

(1.05-1.43)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


-

OR = 0.46

(0.22-0.94)

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


-

OR = 0.86

(0.82-0.91)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

OR = 0.86

(0.72-1.04)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Bleeding risk

1 risk factor

0

OR = 0.75

(0.41-1.36)

use of warfarin

AF

McCormick et al. (2001) [11]


≥ 2 risk factors

-

OR = 0.51

(0.29-0.94)

use of warfarin

AF

McCormick et al. (2001) [11]


High risk

0

OR = 0.82

(0.52-1.30)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Cognitive impairment

Moderate

-

OR = 0.93

(0.88-0.97)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

OR = 0.93

(0.81-1.08)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.98

(0.86-1.12)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Severe

0

OR = 1.19

(0.99-1.44)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


-

OR = 0.64

(0.52-0.80)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


-

OR = 0.63

(0.60-0.67)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

OR = 1.02

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Conditions

Active malignancy

0

OR = 0.93

(0.57-1.51)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004)[10]


Alzheimer's disease

-

OR = 0.77

(0.70-0.85)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Anemia

0

OR = 0.87

(0.55-1.39)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Aneurysms

0

OR = 0.88

(0.55-1.40)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Atrial fibrillation

-

OR = 0.73

(0.64-0.83)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al.

(2004) [18]


+

OR = 1.76

(1.50-2.06)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


+

OR = 2.04

(1.95-2.14)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Congestive heart failure

0

OR = 1.13

(0.98-1.30)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.04

(0.65-1.65)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]


0

OR = 1.02

(0.87-1.20)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Coronary artery disease

+

OR = 1.06

(1.02-1.11)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

OR = 0.99

(0.62-1.58)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Dementia

-

OR = 0.84

(0.80-0.88)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


-

OR = 0.59

(0.38-0.90)

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Depression

+

OR = 1.22

(1.02-1.46)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


+

OR = 1.11

(1.05-1.18)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

OR = 1.08

(0.93-1.24)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Diabetes mellitus

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]


0

OR = 1.17

(0.73-1.86)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Hypertension

-

OR = 0.87

(0.78-0.97)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


+

OR = 1.23

(1.09-1.39)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.10

(0.69-1.75)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]


+

OR = 1.27

(1.22-1.32)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Left ventricular dysfunction

0

OR = 0.83

(0.63-1.09)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.07

(0.88-1.30)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Liver disease

0

OR = 1.53

(0.95-2.49)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Major comorbidity burden

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Moderate comorbidity burden

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Multiple conditions (4 or more)

0

OR = 0.84

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Peptic ulcer disease

0

OR = 0.90

(0.57-1.43)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


-

OR = 0.64

(0.58-0.71)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Peripheral vascular disease

+

OR = 1.13

(1.05-1.20)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Previous bleeding

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Previous falls

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Previous GI bleeding

-

OR = 0.57

(0.52-0.62)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


-

OR = 0.18

(0.03-0.91)

use of warfarin

AF

Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]


Previous major bleeding

0

OR = 0.73

(0.46-1.15)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Previous stroke

+

OR = 4.93

(2.11-11.49)

use of warfarin

AF

Abdel-Latif et al. (2005) [7]


+

OR = 1.87

(1.20-2.91)

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Previous stroke or TIA

0

OR = 1.24

(0.78-1.97)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Previous systemic embolus

0

OR = 1.46

(0.92-2.34)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Recent surgery

-

OR = 0.59

(0.37-0.94)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Renal insufficiency

0

OR = 0.91

(0.57-1.45)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Rheumatic mitral valvular

0

OR = 0.80

(0.50-1.28)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Seizure disorder

0

OR = 1.05

(0.66-1.67)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Transient ischemic attack

+

OR = 1.34

(1.09-1.64)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.99

(0.84-1.17)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Drug Interaction

Uses meds that increase bleeding risk

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


0

OR = 1.26

(0.80-1.98)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004) [10]


Duration of AF

12-24 months

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


> 24 months

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Onset of AF after admission

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Facility

Alzheimer's unit

0

OR = 0.78

(0.57-1.05)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.14

(0.80-1.62)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Hospital based

0

OR = 0.96

(0.72-1.29)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.96

(0.75-1.23)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Location rural

0

OR = 0.89

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Location urban

+

OR = 1.38

(1.16-1.65)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.06

(0.87-1.3)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Large new model facility (vs small)

0

OR = 0.61

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Non-white > 10% (vs > 0% to < 5%)

0

OR = 1.09

(0.91-1.32)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


+

OR = 1.22

(1.03-1.43)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Non-white > 5% to < 10% (vs > 0% to < 5%)

0

OR = 1.00

(0.81-1.24)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.95

(0.78-1.15)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Non-white 0% (vs > 0% to < 5%)

-

OR = 0.74

(0.57-0.96)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.17

(0.93-1.46)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Ownership status for profit (vs non-profit)

0

OR = 0.90

(0.76-1.07)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.90

(0.77-1.05)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Ownership status government (vs non-profit)

0

OR = 0.86

(0.64-1.17)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.99

(0.76-1.29)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Part of a chain

+

OR = 1.20

(1.01-1.42)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


-

OR = 0.85

(0.73-0.99)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Payment source % Medicaid (per 10 unit increase)

0

OR = 0.98

(0.91-1.05)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.95

(0.88-1.03)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Payment source % other-pay (per 10 unit increase)

0

OR = 0.94

(0.87-1.01)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.97

(0.89-1.05)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Presence of a RN/LPN

0

OR = 0.74

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Size ≤ 80 (vs 81-199)

0

OR = 1.01

(0.81-1.26)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.92

(0.77-1.11)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Size ≥ 200 (vs 81 to 199)

0

OR = 1.17

(0.99-1.39)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.08

(0.90-1.30)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Special care unit

0

OR = 1.15

(0.83-1.59)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


+

OR = 1.33

(1.02-1.73)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Staff resources any full-time physicians

-

OR = 0.76

(0.63-0.92)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.05

(0.89-1.24)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Staff resources (contract)

0

OR = 1.04

(0.89-1.20)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.02

(0.89-1.17)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Staff resources (physician extenders)

+

OR = 1.21

(1.0-1.47)

discontinue warfarin

or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.08

(0.87-1.34)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Traditional facility (vs small)

0

OR = 0.78

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Weekly physician visits

0

OR = 0.94

(CI notreported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Gender

Female

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


-

OR = 0.94

(0.90-0.98)

use of warfarin orantiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


0

OR = 0.99

(0.87-1.13)

initiate warfarin orantiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.00

(0.89-1.13)

discontinue warfarinor antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.81

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin orantiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Physical Function

Substantial mobility

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Mild impairment

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Intermediate mobility

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Moderate impairment

0

OR = 0.95

(0.75-1.20)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.90

(0.70-1.16)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al.

(1997) [8]


0

OR = 1.03

(0.95-1.11)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Dependent

-

OR = 0.69

(0.64-0.75)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


-

OR = 0.73

(0.56-0.96)

initiate warfarin or

antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 0.99

(0.79-1.25)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.21

(CI notreported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Severe impairment

0

not reported

use of warfarin

AF

Gurwitz et al. (1997) [8]


Race/ethnicity

American Indian

0

OR = 1.00

(0.70-1.43)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

Difference = -0.8(-8.9 to 7.3)

prevalence difference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets

Recent ischemic stroke

Christian et al. (2003) [17]


0

OR = 1.47

(0.98-2.20)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Asian/Pacific islander

0

Difference = -5.2

(-18.1 to 7.8)

prevalencedifference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets

Recentischemicstroke

Christian et al. (2003) [17]


0

OR = 0.71

(0.42-1.21)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


-

OR = 0.44

(0.23-0.83)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Black

-

OR = 0.80

(0.75-0.85)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


Hispanic

0

Difference = - 7.6

(-17.6 to 2.2)

prevalence difference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets

Recent

ischemic

stroke

Christian et al. (2003) [17]


0

OR = 0.81

(0.51-1.29)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous

stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.01

(0.62-1.65)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


Non- Hispanic black

-

OR = 0.62

(0.49-0.78)

initiate warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


0

OR = 1.03

(0.86-1.24)

discontinue warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Hughes et al. (2004) [18]


-

Difference = - 7.6

(-11.2 to -3.9)

prevalence difference from non-Hispanic white for receiving warfarin or antiplatelets

Recent ischemic stroke

Christian et al. (2003) [17]


Other

0

OR = 0.95

(0.86-1.04)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Quilliam et al. (2001) [12]


White

0

OR = 0.69

(CI not reported)

use of warfarin or antiplatelets

Previous stroke

Sloane et al. (2004) [13]


Stroke risk

1 risk factor

0

OR = 1.44

(0.52-4.03)

use of warfarin

AF

McCormick et al. (2001) [11]


2 risk factors

0

OR = 2.44

(0.93-6.39)

use of warfarin

AF

McCormick et al. (2001) [11]


3 risk factors

0

OR = 2.37

(0.90-6.20)

use of warfarin

AF

McCormick et al. (2001) [11]


≥ 4 risk factors

0

OR = 2.50

(0.90-6.95)

use of warfarin

AF

McCormick et al. (2001) [11]


High risk

0

OR = 1.49

(0.93-2.36)

use of warfarin

AF

Lau et al. (2004)[10]


AF, atrial fibrillation; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio

Neidecker et al. BMC Geriatrics 2012 12:14   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-12-14

Open Data