Table 5

Secondary outcome measures continued: physical health and functional status





Body composition


Standing height body weight, waist circumference are obtained in triplicate after 12 hour fasting and body mass index (BMI)) is calculated as fasting body weight (weight kg/height m2).

Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA)

Whole-body skeletal muscle mass (kg) (SMM)* and fat free mass (kg) (FFM) ** were calculated using the average resistance and reactance values of three sequential BIA measures using the BIA Analyser (RLJ Prizum, S/N: B10875E, Mode; BIA-101S).


Pulse Wave Analysis

Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is determined using the SphygmoCor Unit and SphygmoCor software.

Ankle Brachial Index (ABI)

Clinton MI) Ankle-brachial index (mean of dorsalis pedis and posterior tibialis/brachial BP in both arms).

Blood Pressure (BP)

Orthostatic hypotension (OH) Orthostatic Blood Pressure Measurement is taken in a fasted state and after rising from a five minute rest in supine position. Twenty-four hour ambulatory BP monitoring, awake and nocturnal means and circadian rhythm are also obtained.

Exercise Capacity

Muscle strength and endurance

Maximal strength measurement will be obtained using the digital K400 Keiser pneumatic resistance machines (Keiser Sports health Equipments, Inc. Fresno, CA). See table 7 for details.

6 minute walk distance (6MWD) [63]

Walking endurance was assessed using the six minute walk test which is a proxy for overall cardiovascular endurance capacity (aerobic capacity) and in the elderly subject it may be determined by muscle strength and endurance, balance, orthopaedic or neurologic abnormalities, and other problems[63].

Aerobic Capacity

Maximal exercise capacity assessed on treadmill walking test (stress test).

Physical performance

Gait speed habitual and fast

Habitual and maximal gait velocities is assessed for 2 m (Ultra-timer: Raymar, Oxfordshire, UK) with the average of two times taken as habitual (CV = 8.7%) and maximal (CV = 7.6%) gait velocity respectively.

Gait analysis (Gait Logger)

Participants walk two walks of 2 minute duration and data is recorded using the gait logger Minion EGaitLogger and downloaded

Isometric handgrip strength

Isometric handgrip strength of the non dominant hand is assessed using a JAMAR handgrip dynamometer (Sammons Preston, Bolingbrook, IL)

Chair stand [64]

This test is used as a proxy for lower extremity power, or the ability to generate high forces rapidly, with participants primarily utilising the hip extensor and knee extensor muscle groups [64].

Static Balance

Static balance is assessed up to 15 seconds in five different positions (feet apart in parallel stance, feet together in parallel stance, half tandem stance, tandem stance, and one legged stance), without the use of assistive device with eyes open. Total static balance is calculated by summing the time recorded for each of the six stances[65].

Tandem walk

Subjects complete a 3 meter forward tandem walk along a marked course with and

a cognitive distracter task (verbal fluency)

Stair climb

The purpose of this test is to climb stairs as rapidly as possible to enable the calculation of Power (Watts). Power is calculated from the formula: P (watts) =

    (M × D) × 9.8/t
Where: M = Body mass (kg), D = Vertical distance (m), t = Time (s) and, D = vertical height of the staircase = height of 1 step in meters × number of steps (if they are all the same height).

*Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) = 0.401(height in cm2/resistance in ohms)+3.825 (sex: male = 1; female = 0)+age in years(-0.071) + 5.102 [66]

**Fat-free mass (FFM) = -4.03 + 0.734 (height in cm2/resistance in ohms) +0.116(body weight in kg) + 0.096 (reactance in ohms) +0.984 (sex: male = 1; female = 0)[67]

Gates et al. BMC Geriatrics 2011 11:19   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-11-19

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