Table 1

Frailty latent classes by gender: cross-sectional correlates and mortality prediction.

Females (N = 15,578)

Males (N = 12,783)


Non-frail

(N = 10,420)

Pre-frail

(N = 4,025)

Frail

(N = 1,133)

P value

Age-adjusted P value

Non-frail

(N = 10,517)

Pre-frail

(N = 1,871)

Frail

(N = 395)

P value

Age-adjusted P value


Frailty phenotype: DFactor model


Exhaustion: yes (cp)

0.21

0.51

0.81

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω

0.17

0.47

0.80

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω


Weight loss: yes (cp)

0.03

0.12

0.39

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω

0.03

0.12

0.42

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω


Handgrip strength: mean (Kg)

29.4

23.7

17.9

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω

45.8

36.2

26.5

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω


Slowness: yes (cp)

0.02

0.22

0.84

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω

0.01

0.29

0.92

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω


Low activity: hardly ever, or never (cp)

0.03

0.17

0.54

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω

0.03

0.21

0.62

<0.001Ω

<0.001Ω


Sociodemographic


Age: mean (SD)

60.5 (9.4)

66.7 (10.9)

73.3 (11.0)

<0.001#

-

62.6 (9.0)

69.1 (10.4)

74.0 (10.2)

<0.001#

-


Years of education: mean (SD)

10.3 (4.2)

8.2 (4.4)

6.5 (4.4)

<0.001#

<0.001§

10.9 (4.3)

8.6 (4.7)

7.8 (5.0)

<0.001#

<0.001§


Physical


Self-rated health (best:1; worst:5):

mean (SD)

2.7 (1.0)

3.5 (0.9)

4.2 (0.8)

<0.001#

<0.001§

2.7 (1.0)

3.7 (1.0)

4.4 (0.7)

<0.001#

<0.001§


No. chronic diseases: mean (SD)

1.2 (1.2)

2.1 (1.5)

3.1 (1.8)

<0.001#

<0.001§

1.2 (1.2)

2.1 (1.5)

2.9 (1.7)

<0.001#

<0.001§


No. symptoms: mean (SD)

1.2 (1.3)

2.3 (1.8)

3.9 (2.3)

<0.001#

<0.001§

0.9 (1.1)

2.0 (1.7)

3.4 (2.1)

<0.001#

<0.001§


No. contacts with doctor in last year:

mean (SD)

5.0 (7.1)

9.4 (11.4)

15.5 (17.0)

<0.001#

<0.001§

4.9 (7.6)

10.1 (12.4)

17.5 (20.2)

<0.001#

<0.001§


Admitted to hospital in last year (%)

7.9

16.5

30.0

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ

10.4

23.5

36.7

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ


Functional


No. limitations with ADLs: mean (SD)

0.0 (0.2)

0.2 (0.7)

1.1 (1.5)

<0.001#

<0.001§

0.0 (0.3)

0.3 (0.9)

1.3 (1.7)

<0.001#

<0.001§


No. limitations with IADLs: mean (SD)

0.1 (0.3)

0.5 (1.0)

1.8 (1.8)

<0.001#

<0.001§

0.1 (0.3)

0.5 (1.1)

1.9 (2.0)

<0.001#

<0.001§


Received home care: personal/nursing (%)

1.9

5.9

18.6

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ

1.6

6.8

17.2

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ


Received home care: domestic tasks (%)

1.9

10.3

28.7

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ

1.0

6.9

19.2

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ


Psychological and cognitive


EURO-D score (min: 0; max: 12) (SD)

1.9 (1.8)

3.7 (2.4)

5.5 (2.6)

<0.001#

<0.001§

1.4 (1.6)

3.1 (2.3)

5.2 (2.7)

<0.001#

<0.001§


Verbal fluency test score: mean (SD)

20.2 (7.1)

16.5 (6.7)

13.1 (6.0)

<0.001#

<0.001§

20.1 (7.1)

15.9 (6.4)

13.2 (5.7)

<0.001#

<0.001§


Delayed word recall score: mean (SD)

3.9 (2.0)

3.0 (2.0)

1.9 (1.8)

<0.001#

<0.001§

3.4 (1.9)

2.5 (1.8)

1.7 (1.6)

<0.001#

<0.001§


Mortality at Wave 2


% dead

0.7

2.6

9.2

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ

2.0

8.8

22.6

<0.001χ

<0.001Δ


OR for mortality (95% CI)

1.0

3.7 (2.5-5.3)

14.2 (9.7-20.8)

-

-

1.0

4.8 (3.7-6.2)

14.6 (10.3-20.7)

-

-


Age-adjusted OR for mortality (95% CI)

1.0

2.1 (1.4- 3.0)

4.8 (3.1- 7.4)

-

-

1.0

3.0 (2.3-4.0)

6.9 (4.7-10.2)

-

-


cp: conditional probability (from the DFactor model profile output); SD: standard deviation; ADLs: (basic) activities of daily living; IADLs: instrumental activities of daily living; OR: odds ratio; CI: confidence interval. Significant P values (<0.01) are indicated in bold.

Ω Wald statistic; # two-tailed Spearman's rho test; § Partial correlation; χ Chi-squared for trend; Δ ordinal regression.

Romero-Ortuno et al. BMC Geriatrics 2010 10:57   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-57

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