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Open Access Research article

Predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults with pneumonia: findings from the Community Acquired Pneumonia Impact Study

Paul Krueger1*, Oona St Amant2 and Mark Loeb345

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

2 Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada

3 Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

4 Departments of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

5 Michael DeGroote Institute for Infectious Diseases, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

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BMC Geriatrics 2010, 10:44  doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-44

Published: 30 June 2010



The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) almost triples for older adults aged 65 years or older. In Canada, CAP is a leading cause of hospital admissions and mortality. Although CAP is very prevalent, complications due to CAP may be reduced with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV). The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among community-dwelling older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP.


A telephone survey was used to collect detailed information from adults aged 60 years and older with clinically diagnosed CAP. This was a community wide study with participants being recruited from all radiology clinics in one Ontario community.


The most important predictors of pneumococcal vaccination among older adults included: getting an influenza vaccine within the past year (OR 14.5, 95% CI 4.27 to 49.0); at least weekly contact with a friend (OR 3.97, 95% CI 1.71 to 9.24); having one or more co-morbidities/chronic conditions (OR 3.64, 95% CI 1.60 to 8.28); being 70 years of age or older (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.21 to 5.40); having health problems that limited physical activities (OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.49 to 19.3); having little or no bodily pain (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.25 to 6.73); and reporting having spiritual values or religious faith (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.03 to 11.67).


A wide range of factors, including demographic, co-morbidity, quality of life, social support and lifestyle were found to be associated with pneumococcal vaccination status among older adults with clinically diagnosed CAP. The findings from this study could inform future pneumococcal immunization strategies by identifying individuals who are least likely to receive the PPV.