Table 2

Characteristics of included studies and participants, Ginkgo biloba for dementia

Study

Authors, date

Inclusion criteria

Setting

Duration

(weeks)

Treatment groups

Na

Drop out rate N (%)

Age

Mean (SD)b

Sex

% Female

Baseline cognition

Scale (SD)

Mean


Kanowski et al. 1996/2003 [29,36]

All patients

DSM-III-R Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, age > 54 ys, SKT 6-18, MMSE 13-25, no cerebral atrophy, MADRS < 41

Outpatients

24

Ginkgo biloba 240 mg

Placebo

106

99

27 (25)

22 (22)

72 (10)

72 (10)

68

71

SKT

10,5 (3,2)

11,2 (3,3)




Only Alzheimer

79

79

n.a.

72 (10)

72 (10)

71

73

10,3 (3,1)

10,9 (3,3)


Le Bars et al. 1997/2000 [30,37]

All patients

DSM-III-R and ICD-10 Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, age > 44 ys, MMSE 9-26, GDS 3-6, no psychiatric comorbidity

Outpatients

52

Ginkgo biloba 120 mg

Placebo

155

154

77 (50)

95 (62)

69 (47-89)

69 (45-90)

51

56

ADAS-cog

20,0 (16,0)c

20,5 (14,7)c




Only Alzheimer

120

116

n.a.

68 (47-89)

68 (45-90)

54

62

19,7 (16,4)

20,2 (15,2)


Maurer et al. 1997 [31]

DSM-III-R and NINCDS/ADRDA Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, age 50-80 ys, BCRS 3-5, Hachinski-Ischemia Score ≤ 4, no psychiatric comorbidity.

Outpatients

12

Ginkgo biloba 240 mg

Placebo

9

9

1 (10)

1 (10)

68,5 (6,0)

60,6 (8,9)

56

44

ADAS-cog

31,2 (12,6)

36,1 (15,2)


van Dongen et al. 2000 [34,45]

DSM-III-R or ICD-10 Alzheimer's or vascular dementia, or AAMI (clinical diagnosis), age > 49, SKT 8-23, AAMI: MAC-Q ≥ 12 and no dementia (SIDAM), GDS < 11, IQ > 80, no psychiatric comorbidity

Nursing home/old age home

24

Ginkgo biloba 160 mg

or 240 mg

Placebo

79

44

14 (18)

4 (9)

83 (n.a.)

83 (n.a.)

86

82

MMSE

18,0 (4,9)

18,7 (4,6)


Schneider et al. 2005 [33]

NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer dementia, age ≥ 60, MMSE 10-24, Hachinski-Ischemia Score ≤ 4, HAM-D < 16, no psychiatric comorbidity

Outpatients

26

Ginkgo biloba 240 mg

Ginkgo biloba 120 mg

Placebo

170

169

174

30 (18)

34 (20)

39 (22)

78 (7)

79 (7)

78 (7)

56

50

52

ADAS-cog

24,8 (12,7)

24,7 (11,9)

25,0 (11,1)


Yancheva et al 2009 [35]

NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer dementia, age ≥ 50, Clock-drawing Test Score < 6, SKT 9-23, NPI ≥ 5

Outpatients

22

Ginkgo biloba 240 mg

Donepezil 10 mg

Combination of both

31

32

31

1 (3)

4 (1)

2 (6)

69 (8)

66 (8)

68 (9)

55

84

68

SKT

15,7 (4,7)

17,4 (4,2)

17,4 (4,4)


Napryeyenko et al. 2007 [32,51]

All patients

NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer or probable NINDS/AIREN vascular dementia or mixed form, age ≥ 50, Clock-drawing Test Score < 6, SKT 9-23, HAMD17 < 20, NPI ≥ 3, TE4D ≤ 35

Outpatients

22

Ginkgo biloba 240 mg

Placebo

198

197

4 (2)

5 (3)

65 (8)

63 (8)

86

82

SKT

15,6 (3,9)

15,4 (3,7)




Only Alzheimer

104

110

n.a.

66 (8)

64 (8)

67

71

16,4 (3,8)

15,8 (3,8)


McCarney et al. 2008 [2]

DSM-IV dementia, age ≥ 55, MMSE 12-26, presence of a caregiver, Ginkgo biloba was allowed until 2 weeks and cholinesterase inhibitors until 2 months before inclusion

Outpatients

24

Ginkgo biloba 120 mg

Placebo

88

88

25 (28)

20 (23)

79,3 (7,8)

79,7 (7,5)

58

64

ADAS-cog

20,4 (8,2)

25,0 (10,3)


Ihl et al. 2009

All patients

NINCDS/ADRDA probable Alzheimer or probable NINDS/AIREN vascular dementia or mixed form, age ≥ 50, Clock-drawing Test Score < 6, SKT 9-23, HAMD17 < 20, NPI ≥ 3, TE4D ≤ 35

Outpatients

24

Ginkgo biloba 240 mg

Placebo

202

202

16 (8)

12 (6)

65 (10)

65 (9)

69

66

SKT

16,7 (3,9)

17,2 (3,7)




Only Alzheimer

163

170

65 (10)

64 (9)

67

65

16,4 (3,8)

17,0 (3,8)


a: N includes all patients randomized that completed at least one post-treatment evaluation; b: SD = standard deviation (one number) or range (two numbers).

ADAS-cog = Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (0-70); AAMI = age-associated memory impairment; BCRS = Brief Cognitive Rating Scale; GDS = Global Deterioration Scale; MAC-Q = Memory Assessment Clinical Questionnaire; MMSE = Mini Mental State Examination (0-30); n.a. = not available; SIDAM = Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia of the Alzheimer Type; SKT = Syndrom Kurz-Test (0-27), TE4D = Test for Early Detection of Dementia with Discrimination from Depression (ranges of the scale score in brackets, the underlined numbers indicate highest symptom load or disturbance).

Weinmann et al. BMC Geriatrics 2010 10:14   doi:10.1186/1471-2318-10-14

Open Data