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Open Access Research article

Cyclin E involved in early stage carcinogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma by SNP DNA microarray and immunohistochemical studies

Zhongren Zhou1*, Santhoshi Bandla2, Jiqing Ye1, Yinglin Xia3, Jianwen Que4, James D Luketich5, Arjun Pennathur5, Jeffrey H Peters2, Dongfeng Tan6 and Tony E Godfrey7

Author Affiliations

1 Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, 601 Elmwood Ave, Box 626, Rochester, NY 14642, USA

2 Departments of Surgery, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

3 Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

4 Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA

5 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

6 Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA

7 Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

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BMC Gastroenterology 2014, 14:78  doi:10.1186/1471-230X-14-78

Published: 17 April 2014

Abstract

Background

Cyclin E is a cell cycle regulator which is critical for driving G1/S transition. Abnormal levels of cyclin E have been found in many cancers. However, the level changes of cyclin E in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precancerous lesion have not been well studied. Here, we focus on the gene amplification and expression of cyclin E in these lesions, and aim to ascertain the relationship with clinicopathological characteristics.

Methods

Genomic DNA was analyzed from 116 esophageal adenocarcinoma and 26 precancerous lesion patients using Affymetrix SNP 6.0 arrays. The protein overexpression of cyclin E was also detected using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays containing esophageal adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions. Patient survival and other clinical data were collected and analyzed. The intensity and percentage of the cyclin E expressing cells in tissue microarrays were scored by two pathologists. Fisher exact tests and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to analyze data.

Results

By genomic analysis, cyclin E was amplified in 19.0% of the EAC samples. By immunohistochemistry, high expression of cyclin E was observed in 2.3% of squamous mucosa tissues, 3.7% in columnar cell metaplasia, 5.8% in Barrett’s esophagus, 19.0% in low grade dysplasia, 35.7% in high grade dysplasia, and 16.7% in esophageal adenocarcinoma. The differences in cyclin E high expression between neoplastic groups and non-dysplasia groups are statistically significant (p < 0.05). The prognosis for patients with high cyclin E expression appeared slightly better than for those with low cyclin E expression although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.13).

Conclusions

The expression of cyclin E significantly increases from non-dysplasia esophageal lesion to low and high grade dysplasia, suggesting that cyclin E plays an important role in the early stage of carcinogenesis. Importantly, cyclin E is also amplified and highly expressed in a subset of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients, but this increase is not associated with worse prognosis.

Keywords:
Esophageal adenocarcinoma; Cyclin E; Amplification; High expression; Barrett’s esophagus; SNP DNA microarray; Biomarker; Overall survival