Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Consumption of coffee associated with reduced risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis

Li-Xuan Sang1, Bing Chang2, Xiao-Hang Li3 and Min Jiang2*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No.155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, 110001, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, China

2 Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No.155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, 110001, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, China

3 Department of General Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, No.155, Nanjing North Street, Heping District, 110001, Liaoning Province, Shenyang, China

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BMC Gastroenterology 2013, 13:34  doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-34

Published: 25 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding coffee consumption and the risk of liver cancer. We performed a meta-analysis of published case–control and cohort studies to investigate the association between coffee consumption and liver cancer.

Methods

We searched Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and the Cochrane library for studies published up to May 2012. We performed a meta-analysis of nine case–control studies and seven cohort studies.

Results

The summary odds ratio (OR) for high vs no/almost never drinkers was 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.59), with no significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 16.71; P = 0.337; I2 = 10.2%). The ORs were 0.50 (95% CI: 0.40–0.63) for case–control studies and 0.48 (95% CI: 0.38–0.62) for cohort studies. The OR was 0.38 (95% CI: 0.25–0.56) in males and 0.60 (95% CI: 0.33–1.10) in females. The OR was 0.45 (95% CI: 0.36–0.56) in Asian studies and 0.57 (95% CI: 0.44–0.75) in European studies. The OR was 0.39 (95% CI: 0.28–0.54) with no adjustment for a history of liver disease and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.46–0.66) after adjustment for a history of liver disease.

Conclusions

The results of this meta-analysis suggested an inverse association between coffee consumption and liver cancer. Because of the small number of studies, further prospective studies are needed.

Keywords:
Coffee; Epidemiology; Liver cancer; Meta-analysis