Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Antibiotic exposure and the development of coeliac disease: a nationwide case–control study

Karl Mårild12*, Weimin Ye3, Benjamin Lebwohl4, Peter HR Green4, Martin J Blaser5, Tim Card6 and Jonas F Ludvigsson17

Author Affiliations

1 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

2 Astrid Lindgren Children’s Hospital, Solna, Sweden

3 Department of Medical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

4 Celiac Disease Center, Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, USA

5 Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, USA

6 Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham, UK

7 Department of Paediatrics, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden

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BMC Gastroenterology 2013, 13:109  doi:10.1186/1471-230X-13-109

Published: 8 July 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Anatomical therapeutic chemical codes used to classify systemic antibiotics (J01).

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Open Data

Additional file 2:

Odds ratios for prior antibiotic use in individuals with normal mucosa and positive coeliac disease serology. Odds ratios (ORs) for prior antibiotic use with adjustment for education level.

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Additional file 3:

Odds ratios for prior antibiotic use in individuals with coeliac disease, small-intestinal inflammation, and normal small-intestinal mucosaa. Stratified analyses by age at biopsy. Odds ratios for prior antibiotic use in individuals with coeliac disease. Stratified analyses by year of diagnosis.

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Additional file 4:

Odds ratio for prior use of metronidazole in individuals with small-intestinal inflammation and normal mucosaa.

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Open Data