Table 2

Comparison of characteristics among coffee consumer groups categorized by daily coffee amounts
Daily coffee drinking amount
No Mild Moderate Heavy
0 cup/day <1 cup/day 1-2 cup/day ≥3 cup/day
n=43 n=109 n=228 n=120 p-value
Agea, years 48.5 (12.7) 44.6 (12.3) 47.4 (9.7) 45.7 (10.3) 0.077
Maleb 22 (51.2) 51 (46.8) 108 (47.4) 87 (72.5) 0.001
BMIa 23.2 (2.8) 23.4 (3.1) 23.1 (3.1) 24.2 (4.0) 0.035
 Obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2)b 11 (25.6) 26 (23.9) 63 (27.6) 44 (36.7) 0.152
Regular medicationb 8 (18.6) 20 (18.3) 39 (17.1) 16 (13.3) 0.305
 Anti-hypertensive drug 7 (16.3) 19 (17.4) 29 (12.8) 14 (11.7) 0.206
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 2 (4.7) 1 (0.9) 5 (2.2) 1 (0.8) 0.313
 Anti-dyslipidemic drug 1 (2.3) 4 (3.7) 7 (3.1) 1 (0.8) 0.332
Ultrasonography
 Fatty liverb 2 (4.7) 13 (11.9) 17 (7.5) 14 (11.8) 0.480
Alcohol
Drinking historyb
  None drinker 22 (51.2) 37 (33.9) 81 (35.5) 33 (27.5) 0.007
  Past drinker, quitted 3 (7.0) 7 (6.4) 5 (2.2) 4 (3.3)
  Current drinker 18 (41.9) 65 (59.6) 142 (62.3) 83 (69.2)
Daily amount of alcohol consumptionb 15.9 (40.9) 11.1 (19.9) 14.0 (34.9) 16.0 (27.1) 0.649
  No 22 (51.2) 40 (36.7) 83 (36.4) 35 (29.2) 0.086
  Not heavy (< 60g/day for male, <20g/day for female) 17 (39.5) 63 (57.8) 131 (57.5) 79 (65.8)
  Heavy (≥ 60 g/day for male, ≥20 g/day for female) 4 (9.3) 6 (5.5) 14 (6.1) 6 (5.0)
Duration of drinkingb n=43 n=106 n=227 n=116
  ≥ 10 years 17 (39.5) 41 (38.7) 119 (52.4) 71 (61.2) 0.001
Lifetime amount (x103 g)b n=43 n=106 n=227 n=118
  Never 22 (51.2) 38 (35.8) 80 (35.2) 33 (28.0) 0.033
  Mild(<100 x103 g for male , <35 x103 g for female) 12 (27.9) 44 (41.5) 82 (36.1) 47 (39.8)
  Moderate (100–200 x103 g for male, 35–70 x103 g for female) 1 (2.3) 7 (6.6) 19 (8.4) 13 (11.0)
  Heavy (≥200 x103 g for male, ≥70 x103 g for female) 8 (18.6) 17 (16.0) 46 (20.3) 25 (21.2)
Smoking
Historyb n=42 n=107 n=223 n=120
  None smoker 28 (66.7) 72 (67.3) 131 (58.7) 31 (25.8) <0.001
  Past smoker, quitted 10 (23.8) 16 (15.0) 53 (23.8) 32 (26.7)
  Current smoker 4 (9.5) 19 (17.8) 39 (17.5) 57 (47.5)
Daily smoking amount (packs/day)b n=42 n=105 n=213 n=113
  No 28 (66.7) 72 (68.6) 131 (61.5) 31 (27.4) <0.001
  <0.5 7 (16.7) 13 (12.4) 33 (15.5) 23 (20.4)
  0.5-1 4 (9.5) 16 (15.2) 34 (16.0) 42 (37.2)
  > 1 3 (7.1) 4 (3.8) 15 (7.0) 17 (15.0)
Lifetime amount (pack-year)b n=39 n=96 n=199 n=99
  Never 28 (71.8) 72 (75.0) 131 (65.8) 31 (31.3) <0.001
  <10 5 (12.8) 12 (12.5) 27 (13.6) 15 (15.2)
  10-20 1 (2.6) 3 (3.1) 23 (11.6) 30 (30.3)
  ≥ 20 5 (12.8) 9 (9.4) 18 (9.0) 23 (23.2)

Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

a Data are presented as mean (SD).

b Data are presented as number (%).

* P-value for the comparison among the daily coffee consumer groups (no, <1 cups/day, 1–2 cups/day, ≥3 cups/day).

P for trend.

Jang et al.

Jang et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-145

Open Data