Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study population
Total Male Female p-value*
N=500 n=268 n=232
Agea, years 46.5 (10.8) 46.7 (10.8) 46.2 (10.8) 0.432
BMIa, kg/m2 23.5 (3.4) 24.5 (3.5) 22.3 (2.9) <0.001
 Obesity (BMI≥25)b 144 (28.8) 107 (39.9) 37 (15.9) <0.001
 Overweight (BMI ≥23)b 269 (53.8) 190 (70.9) 79 (34.1) <0.001
Regular medicationb 83 (16.6) 50 (18.7) 33 (14.2) 0.188
 Anti-hypertensive drug 69 (13.8) 42 (15.7) 27 (11.7) 0.242
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 9 (1.8) 7 (2.6) 2 (0.9) 0.186
 Anti-hypercholesterolemic drug 13 (2.6) 7 (2.6) 6 (2.6) 1.000
Ultrasonographyb
 Fatty liver 46 (9.2) 37 (13.8) 9 (3.9) <0.001
Liver function testsa
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 198.4 (35.2) 201.6 (33.9) 194.9 (36.3) 0.030
 Total protein, g/dL 7.11 (0.37) 7.11 (0.36) 7.11 (0.39) 0.970
 Albumin, g/dL 4.44 (0.24) 4.50 (0.24) 3.38 (0.22) <0.001
 Total bilirubin, mg/dL 1.07 (0.41) 1.17 (0.38) 0.96 (0.41) <0.001
 ALP, IU/L 63.2 (18.6) 65.3 (15.9) 60.8 (21.1) 0.008
 AST, IU/L 24.3 (12.4) 25.8 (11.8) 22.6 (12.8) 0.005
 ALT, IU/L 25.8 (18.0) 30.7 (18.0) 20.1 (16.3) <0.001
 GGT, IU/L 35.3 (39.4) 46.0 (35.7) 33.9 (39.9) <0.001
 Ln(GGT) 3.25 (0.72) 3.60 (0.64) 2.83 (0.58) <0.001
Coffee
Drinking historyb
  None drinker 38 (7.6) 19 (7.1) 19 (8.2) 0.525
  Past drinker, quitted 19 (3.8) 9 (3.4) 10 (4.3)
  Current drinker 443 (88.6) 240 (89.6) 203 (87.5)
Type of coffeeb
  Instant 289 (57.8) 164 (61.2) 125 (53.9) 0.084
  Brewed 40 (8.0) 21 (7.8) 19 (8.2)
  Instant and brewed (mixed) 66 (13.2) 33 (12.3) 33 (14.2)
  Others 105 (21.0) 50 (18.7) 55 (23.7)
Daily amount of coffee consumption (cups/day)b
  0 43 (8.6) 22 (8.2) 21 (9.1) 0.001
  <1 109 (21.8) 51 (19.0) 58 (25.0)
  1-2 229 (45.6) 108 (40.3) 120 (51.7)
  ≥ 3 120 (24.0) 87 (32.5) 33 (14.2)
Smoking
Historyb
  None smoker 262 (53.3) 50 (18.7) 212 (94.2) <0.001
  Past smoker, quitted 111 (22.6) 109 (40.8) 2 (0.9)
  Current smoker 119 (24.2) 108 (40.4) 11 (4.9)
Daily smoking amount (packs/day)b n=473 n=249 n=224
  No 262 (55.4) 50 (20.1) 212 (94.6) <0.001
  <0.5 76 (16.1) 66 (26.5) 10 (4.5)
  0.5-1 96 (20.3) 94 (37.8) 2 (0.9)
  > 1 39 (8.2) 39 (15.7) 0 (0.0)
Alcohol
Drinking historyb
  None drinker 173 (34.6) 32 (11.9) 141 (60.8) <0.001
  Past drinker, quitted 19 (3.8) 13 (4.9) 6 (2.6)
  Current drinker 308 (61.6) 223 (83.2) 85 (36.6)
Daily amount of alcohol consumptionb
  No 180 (36.0) 34 (12.7) 146 (62.9) <0.001
  Not heavy (< 60g/day for male, <20g/day for female) 290 (58.0) 213 (79.5) 77 (33.2)
  Heavy (≥ 60 g/day for male, ≥20 g/day for female) 30 (6.0) 21 (7.8) 9 (3.9)
Duration of drinkingb
  ≥ 10 years 236 (49.4) 203 (76.0) 43 (18.6) <0.001

Abbreviation:BMI, body mass index; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; Ln(GGT), natural logarithmic scale of gamma-glutamyltransferase.

a Data are presented as mean (SD).

b Data are presented as number (%).

* P-value for the comparison between men and women.

P for trend.

Jang et al.

Jang et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2012 12:145   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-145

Open Data