Table 2

Effect of moderate (3-5g) and low (1-3g) amounts of gluten on small-bowel mucosal villous height crypt depth ratio (Vh/CrD), densities of CD3+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and gastrointestinal symptoms in treated celiac disease patients.

No

Mean daily gluten intake (g)

Duration of gluten challenge (days)

Small-bowel biopsy

Symptoms‡

Vh/CrD*

CD3+ IELs†




I

II

I

II

I

II


Moderate amounts of gluten daily

1

5.0

29

2.8

0.8

33

88

0

++

2

4.9

84

3.5

3.4

43

84

0

0

3

4.9

38

2.9

1.3

64

128

0

++

4

4.7

45

2.7

0.2

70

113

0

+

5

4.1

61

3.0

3.5

41

56

0

++

6

4.0

91

3.0

0.6

45

97

0

+

7

3.6

91

2.8

1.4

42

125

0

0

8

3.6

84

3.0

2.6

38

47

0

+

9

3.4

88

3.8

2.3

69

83

0

+

10

3.3

86

2.7

0.6

68

96

0

+

Low amounts of gluten daily

11

2.8

89

2.5

3.1

87

52

0

+

12

2.7

84

3.0

0.6

87

117

0

0

13

2.6

81

2.9

3.1

49

50

0

0

14

2.4

85

2.7

1.9

146

271

0

+

15

2.2

103

4.2

1.3

23

48

0

+

16

2.1

93

1.3

0.1

130

99

0

+

17

2.1

85

3.3

2.4

100

79

0

+

18

2.1

84

2.9

1.7

75

78

0

0

19

2.1

83

3.2

3.4

70

123

0

+

20

1.4

77

3.4

3.0

41

87

0

++

21

1.3

78

2.5

0.8

53

71

0

0

Altogether positive outcome§, n (%)

14 (67%)

14 (67%)

15 (71%)


Clinically significant changes between baseline (I) and 12 weeks' follow-up examination (II) are marked in bold numbers. Complete challenge lasted 12 weeks (84 ± 14 days).

* Abnormal ratio compatible with active celiac disease <2.0

† Reference value for CD3+ IELs 37 cell/mm

‡ Symptoms graded as 0 = no symptoms, + = mild symptoms, ++ = moderate symptoms,

§ Positive outcome reported when clinically significant changes appeared (>0.5 decrease in Vh/CrD, >30% increase in IEL densities) or when symptoms worsened.

Lähdeaho et al. BMC Gastroenterology 2011 11:129   doi:10.1186/1471-230X-11-129

Open Data