Table 2

Participant Questionnaire components
Instrument Description Scoring
Patient Health Questionnaire 8 (PHQ-8)[25] Self-report measure of depression Each of 8 items scores from 0=‘not at all’ to 3=‘nearly every day’ Major depressive disorder (PHQ-8): ≤ 4 – no significant symptoms, 5 to 9 – mild symptoms, 10 to 14 – moderate symptoms, 15 to 19 – moderately severe symptoms, ≥ 20 – severe symptoms
Problem Area in Diabetes (PAID)[26] Covers a range of emotional states frequently reported in diabetes. It is primarily a measure of diabetes-specific emotional distress Each of 20 items scores from 0=‘not a problem’ to 4=‘serious problem’ PAID summary score: 0 to 39 – no distress, 40 to 59 – mild distress 60 to 79 – moderate distress 80 to 100 – severe distress
HFS II (Hypoglycaemia Fear Scale)[11] Provides an assessment of an individuals’ fear of hypoglycaemia both overall and in terms of behaviour and worry. IUsed to assess both fear of hypos and maladaptive behaviours to avoid them. Each of 33 items scores from 0=‘never’ to 4=‘always’ Score for frequency/severity of avoidance behaviour: 0 to 36 – no/slight avoidance behaviour: 37 to 48 – moderate avoidance behaviour: 49 to 60 – frequent/severe avoidance behaviour Score for severity of worry: 0 to 43 – no/slight worry: 44 to 57 – moderate worry: 57 to 72 – frequent/severe worry
Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (baseline) DTSQs and DTSQc (change)[27] Baseline version measures patient satisfaction with diabetes treatment Change version developed to overcome ceiling effects with treatment satisfaction DTSQs -- Each of 6 items scores from 0=‘very bad’ to 6=‘very good’ DTSQc -- Each of 6 items scores from −3=‘much worse now’ to 3=‘much better now’)
Gold Scale[28] Categorises awareness of having reduced awareness of hypoglycaemia in patients with diabetes. One item with score from 1=‘always aware’ to 7=‘never aware’ Impaired awareness if the Gold scale score is ≥4
EuroQol-5 Dimensions-5 Levels measure (EQ-5D-5L)[29] Measures health outcomes and is applicable to a wide range of health conditions and treatments Each of the 5 items score from 1=‘no problems’ to 5=‘unable’) EQ-5D health assessment scores from 0=‘worst health’ to 100=‘best health’)

Cavan et al.

Cavan et al. BMC Family Practice 2012 13:102   doi:10.1186/1471-2296-13-102

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