Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

GPs' reasons for referral of patients with chest pain: a qualitative study

Rudi Bruyninckx1*, Ann Van den Bruel1, Karin Hannes1, Frank Buntinx12 and Bert Aertgeerts1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of General Practice, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

2 Research Institute Caphri, Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands

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BMC Family Practice 2009, 10:55  doi:10.1186/1471-2296-10-55

Published: 31 July 2009



Prompt diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome is very important and urgent referral to a hospital is imperative because fast treatment can be life-saving and increase the patient's life expectancy and quality of life. The aim of our study was to identify GPs' reasons for referring or not referring patients presenting with chest pain.


In a semi-structured interview, 21 GPs were asked to describe why they do or do not refer a patient presenting with chest pain. Interviews were taped, transcribed and qualitatively analysed.


Histories of 21 patients were studied. Six were not referred, seven were referred to a cardiologist and eight to the emergency department. GPs' reasons for referral were background knowledge about the patient, patient's age and cost-benefit estimation, the perception of a negative attitude from the medical rescue team, recent patient contact with a cardiologist without detection of a coronary disease and the actual presentation of signs and symptoms, gut feeling, clinical examination and ECG results.


This study suggests that GPs believe they do not exclusively use the 'classical' signs and symptoms in their decision-making process for patients presenting with chest pain. Background knowledge about the patient, GPs' personal ideas and gut feeling are also important.