Table 2

Individual study results (2 × 2 data), results of the quality assessment, and quality scores using each of the five scoring schemes

Study details

2 × 2 Data

QUADAS Results

Quality score


TP

FP

FN

TN

Spectrum composition

Selection criteria

Reference standard

Disease progression bias

Partial verification bias

Differential verification bias

Incorporation bias

Test execution details

Reference execution details

Test review bias

Diagnostic review bias

Clinical review bias

Uninterpretable results

Withdrawals

Score 1

Score 2

Score 3

Score 4

Score 5


Standard US


Baronciani (1986) [24]

13

4

8

49

+

+

+

?

+

+

+

-

-

?

?

?

?

?

43

64

45

46

53

Dura (1997) [25]

3

4

14

27

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

86

89

85

77

79

Evans (1999) [26]

2

10

17

84

-

+

+

?

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

+

?

50

68

48

42

49

Foresman (2001) [27]

24

43

25

47

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

?

+

+

79

82

79

73

76

Mage (1989) [28]

22

5

19

76

-

-

+

?

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

?

?

36

57

42

35

42

Mahant (2002) [29]

14

30

21

97

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

?

?

?

64

75

73

65

68

Morin (1999) [30]

20

41

2

7

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

?

?

50

68

55

42

52

Muensterer (2002) [31]

35

76

34

241

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

?

+

57

71

58

46

55

Oostenbrink (2000) [32]

21

20

16

83

+

+

+

?

-

?

+

+

-

+

?

?

?

-

43

61

42

42

47

Salih (1994) [33]

26

3

1

12

+

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

?

?

?

?

-

43

57

52

46

58

Tan (1988) [34]

3

6

14

32

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

?

?

?

50

61

58

42

52

Verber (1988) [35]

8

9

20

25

+

-

+

?

-

+

+

+

+

?

?

?

?

-

43

61

45

38

46


Median Score

50

66

53

44

52


Contrast-enhanced US


Alzen (1994) [36]

20

6

2

73

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

?

?

?

?

?

36

54

45

35

46

Bergius (1990) [23]

56

2

14

176

+

-

+

?

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

?

-

64

71

76

81

76

Berrocal (2001) [37]

94

29

10

307

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

?

?

43

61

52

38

49

Berrocal Frutos (2000) [38]

63

19

7

204

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

86

89

85

77

79

Haberlick (1997) [39]

21

10

9

114

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

?

?

50

68

55

42

52

Kessler (1982) [40]

13

0

4

38

-

+

+

?

-

+

+

+

-

+

?

?

?

-

43

57

45

38

44

McEwing (2002) [41]

8

3

8

173

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

?

?

+

71

79

76

69

72

Mentzel (2002) [42]

36

10

4

174

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

?

?

+

+

71

79

73

62

69

Nakamura (2002) [43]

9

3

2

52

-

-

+

?

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

?

?

?

50

64

61

58

59

Piaggio (2003) [44]

42

35

32

196

-

+

+

?

+

+

+

+

+

?

?

+

?

+

64

79

64

58

56

Radmayr (2002) [44]

71

5

3

129

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

79

82

82

73

76

Schneider (1984) [45]

46

15

17

141

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

?

?

?

71

82

79

69

71

Siamplis (1996) [46]

15

4

3

154

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

?

?

?

+

?

57

71

58

46

56

Valentini (2001) [47]

34

4

8

72

-

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

?

?

?

50

61

58

42

52

Uhl (2003) [48]

16

0

3

28

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

-

+

?

?

+

?

64

75

67

65

74

Von Rohden (1995) [49]

6

0

1

19

-

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

?

+

+

86

89

85

77

79


Median score

64

73

65

60

64


TP = true positives; FP = false positives; FN = false negatives; TN = true negatives + = yes; - = no; ? = unclear

Whiting et al. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005 5:19   doi:10.1186/1471-2288-5-19

Open Data