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Open Access Research article

A modified Wald interval for the area under the ROC curve (AUC) in diagnostic case-control studies

Martina Kottas1, Oliver Kuss2 and Antonia Zapf13*

Author Affiliations

1 Institute for Biostatistics, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany

2 Institute for Biometry and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Institute for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Auf’m Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany

3 Department of Medical Statistics, University Medical Center Göttingen, Humboldtallee 32, 37073 Göttingen, Germany

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BMC Medical Research Methodology 2014, 14:26  doi:10.1186/1471-2288-14-26

Published: 19 February 2014



The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, referred to as the AUC, is an appropriate measure for describing the overall accuracy of a diagnostic test or a biomarker in early phase trials without having to choose a threshold. There are many approaches for estimating the confidence interval for the AUC. However, all are relatively complicated to implement. Furthermore, many approaches perform poorly for large AUC values or small sample sizes.


The AUC is actually a probability. So we propose a modified Wald interval for a single proportion, which can be calculated on a pocket calculator. We performed a simulation study to compare this modified Wald interval (without and with continuity correction) with other intervals regarding coverage probability and statistical power.


The main result is that the proposed modified Wald intervals maintain and exploit the type I error much better than the intervals of Agresti-Coull, Wilson, and Clopper-Pearson. The interval suggested by Bamber, the Mann-Whitney interval without transformation and also the interval of the binormal AUC are very liberal. For small sample sizes the Wald interval with continuity has a comparable coverage probability as the LT interval and higher power. For large sample sizes the results of the LT interval and of the Wald interval without continuity correction are comparable.


If individual patient data is not available, but only the estimated AUC and the total sample size, the modified Wald intervals can be recommended as confidence intervals for the AUC. For small sample sizes the continuity correction should be used.

AUC; Diagnostic study; Biomarker study; Wald interval