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Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research: ENTREQ

Allison Tong12*, Kate Flemming3, Elizabeth McInnes4, Sandy Oliver5 and Jonathan Craig12

Author Affiliations

1 Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia

2 Centre for Kidney Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia

3 Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Heslington, York, Y010 5DD, UK

4 National Centre for Clinical Outcomes Research, Australian Catholic University, St Vincent’s Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, 2010, Australia

5 Institute of Education, University of London, London, WC1H 0AL, UK

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BMC Medical Research Methodology 2012, 12:181  doi:10.1186/1471-2288-12-181

Published: 27 November 2012



The syntheses of multiple qualitative studies can pull together data across different contexts, generate new theoretical or conceptual models, identify research gaps, and provide evidence for the development, implementation and evaluation of health interventions. This study aims to develop a framework for reporting the synthesis of qualitative health research.


We conducted a comprehensive search for guidance and reviews relevant to the synthesis of qualitative research, methodology papers, and published syntheses of qualitative health research in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and relevant organisational websites to May 2011. Initial items were generated inductively from guides to synthesizing qualitative health research. The preliminary checklist was piloted against forty published syntheses of qualitative research, purposively selected to capture a range of year of publication, methods and methodologies, and health topics. We removed items that were duplicated, impractical to assess, and rephrased items for clarity.


The Enhancing transparency in reporting the synthesis of qualitative research (ENTREQ) statement consists of 21 items grouped into five main domains: introduction, methods and methodology, literature search and selection, appraisal, and synthesis of findings.


The ENTREQ statement can help researchers to report the stages most commonly associated with the synthesis of qualitative health research: searching and selecting qualitative research, quality appraisal, and methods for synthesising qualitative findings. The synthesis of qualitative research is an expanding and evolving methodological area and we would value feedback from all stakeholders for the continued development and extension of the ENTREQ statement.

Thematic synthesis; Standards; Qualitative health research; Reporting