Table 1

Participants’ characteristics (N = 110)
n (%) or mean (SD) F/χ2/Fisher's P*
Total (n = 110) Aerobic (n = 50) Resistance (n = 30) Combination (n = 30)
Sociodemographic characteristics
 Age, years 43.1 (9.0) 42.2 (9.5) 46.0 (10.0) 41.8 (6.6) 2.16 .120
 Married, yes 90 (81.8) 37 (74.0) 29 (97.6) 24 (80.0) 6.57 .037
 Education 0.78 .678
  Some college or more 66 (60.0) 31 (62.0) 16 (53.3) 19 (63.3)
  High school degree or less 44 (40.0) 19 (38.0) 14 (46.7) 11 (36.7)
 Monthly household income ($) 1.37 .503
  <=3,500 61 (55.5) 30 (60.0) 14 (46.7) 17 (56.7)
  > 3,500 49 (44.5) 20 (40.0) 16 (53.3) 13 (43.3)
 Employed, yes 43 (39.1) 19 (38.0) 11 (36.7) 13 (43.3) 0.33 .850
Health-related characteristics
 Obesity-related conditions, yes 27 (24.5) 15 (30.0) 8 (26.7) 4 (13.3) 2.91 .233
 Post-menopause, yes 32 (29.1) 15 (30.0) 12 (40.0) 5 (16.7) 4.00 .136
 Current smoking, yes 6 (5.5) 2 (4.0) 1 (3.3) 3 (10.0) 1.57 .556
 Alcohol drinking (twice or more/week), yes 9 (8.2) 4 (8.0) 2 (6.7) 3 (10.0) 0.36 1.000
 Anti-hypertensive medication, yes 11 (10.0) 7 (14.0) 4 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 5.22 .101
 Lipid-lowering medication, yes 7 (6.4) 0 (0.0) 5 (16.7) 2 (6.7) 8.74 .007
Markers of subclinical atherosclerosis
 FMD, % 10.76 (3.457) 11.10 (3.263) 9.94 (3.477) 11.08 (3.723) 1.18 .310
 PWV, m/sec 7.86 (1.356) 7.77 (1.615) 7.89 (1.210) 7.99 (1.005) 0.24 .784
 IMT, mm 0.67 (0.128) 0.68 (0.118) 0.68 (0.131) 0.66 (0.142) 0.32 .724
Anthropometric profile
 Body weight, kg 72.4 (10.55) 72.3 (9.94) 70.8 (10.25) 74.2 (11.86) 0.77 .467
 Body mass index, kg/m2 28.5 (0.36) 28.5 (0.54) 27.9 (0.58) 29.1 (0.79) 0.79 .456
 Lean body mass, kg 46.0 (4.76) 46.0 (4.69) 45.5 (5.11) 46.4 (4.63) 0.25 .776
Cardiometabolic profile
 Waist circumference, cm 94.8 (7.80) 94.4 (7.00) 93.8 (7.25) 96.4 (9.46) 0.93 .397
 Systolic BP, mmHg 116.5 (13.08) 116.6 (12.97) 117.4 (10.38) 115.6 (15.78) 0.15 .859
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 212.1 (39.74) 214.8 (37.51) 204.5 (45.99) 215.2 (36.81) 0.75 .476
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 129.1 (36.39) 130.3 (32.46) 120.2 (42.98) 135.9 (34.75) 1.47 .235
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 53.1 (12.61) 53.0 (12.59) 51.6 (15.14) 54.6 (9.78) 0.44 .642
 Triglycerides, mg/dL 131.2 (98.40, 73.50) 147.1 (97.10, 205.65) 136.5 (105.05, 177.15) 122.3 (96.13, 146.93) 2.16 .120
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 89.6 (14.45) 90.1 (16.72) 93.6 (14.50) 84.9 (8.05) 2.89 .060
Dietary intakea
 Total energy (kcal/day) 1538.2 (446.01) 1498.9 (441.99) 1552.3 (360.01) 1585.8 (525.19) 0.33 .717
 Carbohydrates (g/day) 218.5 (64.91) 217.5 (74.77) 216.8 (40.41) 221.6 (68.26) 0.05 .956
 Protein (g/day) 65.4 (25.62) 61.9 (18.10) 66.6 (23.40) 69.6 (35.68) 0.82 .445
 Lipid (g/day) 45.6 (18.23) 43.3 (17.53) 46.4 (15.78) 48.4 (21.27) 0.68 .508
Cardiorespiratory fitness
 VO2max, mL/kg/min 31.1 (6.24) 31.3 (5.80) 30.6 (6.16) 31.3 (7.15) 0.16 .849

BP = blood pressure; FMD = flow mediated dilation; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; PWV = pulse wave velocity; IMT = intima media thickness; SD = standard deviation; VO2max = maximal oxygen consumption; Obesity-related conditions include hypertension and dyslipidemia.

*P-values from one-way ANOVA, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate aAnalyzed with the sample size (N = 96).

Choo et al.

Choo et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2014 14:82   doi:10.1186/1471-2261-14-82

Open Data