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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Acute coronary syndrome in young Sub-Saharan Africans: A prospective study of 21 cases

Moustapha Sarr1, Djibril Mari Ba1, Mouhamadou Bamba Ndiaye1*, Malick Bodian1, Modou Jobe1, Adama Kane1, Maboury Diao1, Alassane Mbaye2, Mouhamadoul Mounir Dia1, Soulemane Pessinaba1, Abdoul Kane2 and Serigne Abdou Ba1

Author Affiliations

1 Service de Cardiologie, CHU Aristide Le Dantec University Hospital, PO Box 6633, Dakar étoile, Avenue Pasteur, Dakar, Senegal

2 Service de Cardiologie, Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff, Dakar, Senegal

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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2013, 13:118  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-13-118

Published: 14 December 2013

Abstract

Background

Coronary heart disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. In Africa, the disease continues to rise with varying rates of progression in different countries. At present, there is little available work on its juvenile forms. The objective of this work was to study the epidemiological, clinical and evolutionary aspects of acute coronary syndrome in young Sub-Saharan Africans.

Methods

This was a prospective multicenter study done at the different departments of cardiology in Dakar. We included all patients of age 40 years and below, and who were admitted for acute coronary syndrome between January 1st, 2005 and July 31st, 2007. We collected and analyzed the epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and evolutionary data of the patients.

Results

Hospital prevalence of acute coronary syndrome in young people was 0.45% (21/4627) which represented 6.8% of all cases of acute coronary syndrome admitted during the same period. There was a strong male predominance with a sex-ratio (M:F) of 6. The mean age of patients was 34 ± 1.9 years (range of 24 and 40 years). The main risk factor was smoking, found in 52.4% of cases and the most common presenting symptom was chest pain found in 95.2% of patients. The average time delay before medical care was 14.5 hours. Diagnosis of ST- elevation myocardial infarction in 85.7% of patients and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction in 14.3% was made by the combination electrocardiographic features and troponin assay. Echocardiography found a decreased left ventricular systolic function in 37.5% of the patients and intraventricular thrombus in 20% of them. Thrombolysis using streptokinase was done in 44.4% of the patients with ST- elevation myocardial infarction. Hospital mortality was 14.3%.

Conclusion

Acute coronary syndrome is present in young Sub-Saharan Africans. The main risk factor found was smoking.

Keywords:
Acute coronary syndrome; Young Sub-Saharan African; Dakar