Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in the Croatian adult population - a cross-sectional study

Jasna Vučak1*, Milica Katić2, Ivan Bielen3, Davorka Vrdoljak4, Dragica Ivezić Lalić5, Ksenija Kranjčević6 and Biserka Bergman Marković2

Author Affiliations

1 Family Health Center, Ambulanta, Ulica XVIII Sukosan, Zadar, 23206, Croatia

2 Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia

3 Department of neurology, Hospital “Sveti Duh”, Zagreb, Croatia

4 Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine University of Split, Split, Croatia

5 Family Health Center, Novska, Croatia

6 Family Health Center, DZ Zapad, Zagreb, Croatia

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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2012, 12:117  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-117

Published: 4 December 2012



The association between hyperuricemia, hypertension, and diabetes has been proved to have strong association with the risk for cardiovascular diseases, but it is not clear whether hyperuricemia is related to the early stages of hypertension and diabetes. Therefore, in this study we investigated the association between hyperuricemia, prediabetes, and prehypertension in Croatian adults, as well as that between purine-rich diet and hyperuricemia, prediabetes, or prehypertension.


A stratified random representative sample of 64 general practitioners (GP) was selected. Each GP systematically chose participants aged ≥ 40 year (up to 55 subjects) . Recruitment occurred between May and September 2008. The medical history, anthropometric, and laboratory measures were obtained for each participant.


59 physicians agreed to participate and recruited 2485 subjects (response rate 77%; average age (± standard deviation) 59.2 ±10.6; 61.9% women. In bivariate analysis we found a positive association between hyperuricemia and prediabetes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.09–2.53), but not for prehypertension (OR 1.68, 95% CI 0.76–3.72). After controlling for known confounders for cardiovascular disease (age, gender, body mass index, alcohol intake, diet, physical activity, waist to hip ratio, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and triglycerides), in multivariate analysis HU ceased to be an independent predictor(OR 1.33, CI 0.98–1.82, p = 0.069) for PreDM. An association between purine-rich food and hyperuricemia was found (p<0.001) and also for prediabetes (p=0.002), but not for prehypertension (p=0.41). The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 10.7% (15.4% male, 7.8% female), 32.5% for prediabetes (35.4% male, 30.8% female), and 26.6% for prehypertension (27.2% male, 26.2% female).


Hyperuricemia seems to be associated with prediabetes but not with prehypertension. Both, hyperuricemia and prediabetes were associated with purine-rich food and patients need to be advised on appropriate diet.

Trial registration

Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN31857696

Hyperuricemia; Prediabetes; Prehypertension; Purine-rich food; Prevalence