A: The spontaneous onset of atrial fibrillation triggered by ectopies from the right superior pulmonary vein. * The potential of right superior pulmonary vein preceded P wave by 63 ms. B: Fluoroscopic AP image demonstrating positions of the electrode catheters. The patient was on intra-aortic balloon pump during the procedure due to severe congestive heart failure. CS: coronary sinus; IABP = intraaortic balloon pump; LSPV = left superior pulmonary vein; LIPV = left inferior pulmonary vein; RSPV = right superior pulmonary vein; SVC = superior vena cava; dist = distal bipole; prox = proximal bipole.
Morishima et al. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2012 12:110 doi:10.1186/1471-2261-12-110