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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Establishing baseline criteria of cardio-ankle vascular index as a new indicator of arteriosclerosis: a cross-sectional study

Tsukasa Namekata12*, Kenji Suzuki3, Norio Ishizuka3 and Kohji Shirai4

Author Affiliations

1 Pacific Rim Disease Prevention Center, P.O.Box 25444, Seattle, WA 98165-2344, USA

2 Department of Health Services, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Box 357660, Seattle, WA 98195-7660, USA

3 Japan Health Promotion Foundation, 1-24-4 Ebisu, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan

4 Department of Internal Medicine, Sakura Hospital Medical Center, Toho University, 546-1 Shizu, Sakura-shi, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

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BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 2011, 11:51  doi:10.1186/1471-2261-11-51

Published: 10 August 2011

Abstract

Background

A cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) has been developed to represent the extent of arteriosclerosis throughout the aorta, femoral artery and tibial artery independent of blood pressure. To practically use CAVI as a diagnostic tool for determining the extent of arteriosclerosis, our study objectives were (1) to establish the baseline CAVI scores by age and gender among cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-free persons, (2) to compare CAVI scores between genders to test the hypothesis that the extent of arteriosclerosis in men is greater than in women, and (3) to compare CAVI scores between the CVD risk-free group and the CVD high-risk group in order to test the hypothesis that the extent of arteriosclerosis in the CVD high-risk group is greater than in the CVD risk-free group.

Methods

Study subjects were 32,627 urban residents 20-74 years of age who participated in CVD screening in Japan during 2004-2006. A new device (model VaSera VS-1000) was used to measure CAVI scores. At the time of screening, CVD high-risk persons were defined as those having any clinical abnormalities of CVD, and CVD risk-free persons were defined as those without any clinical abnormalities of CVD. Age-specific average CAVI scores were compared between genders and between the CVD risk-free group and the CVD high-risk group. Student's t-test using two independent samples was applied to a comparison of means between two groups.

Results

Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group linearly increased in both genders as their age increased. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group were significantly greater among men than among women. Average age-specific baseline scores of CAVI in the CVD risk-free group were significantly smaller than those in the CVD high-risk group in both genders after 40 years of age.

Conclusions

The baseline CAVI scores from the CVD risk-free group are useful for future studies as control values. The CAVI method is a useful tool to screen persons with moderate to advanced levels of arteriosclerosis.