Fitness after herbivory. Seed production per plant by field-grown wild-type, npq1 and npq4 Arabidopsis plants. The three genotypes were grown in a randomized block design in the field, and two out of the six blocks were subject to grazing by naturally occurring herbivores. Seed production is shown as log10 value, error bars denote ± SE.
Frenkel et al. BMC Plant Biology 2009 9:12 doi:10.1186/1471-2229-9-12