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Discovery of induced point mutations in maize genes by TILLING

Bradley J Till1, Steven H Reynolds2, Clifford Weil3, Nathan Springer4, Chris Burtner2, Kim Young1, Elisabeth Bowers1, Christine A Codomo1, Linda C Enns2, Anthony R Odden1, Elizabeth A Greene1, Luca Comai2 and Steven Henikoff1*

Author Affiliations

1 Basic Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109, USA

2 Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA

3 Department of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

4 Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, 55108 USA

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BMC Plant Biology 2004, 4:12  doi:10.1186/1471-2229-4-12

Published: 28 July 2004



Going from a gene sequence to its function in the context of a whole organism requires a strategy for targeting mutations, referred to as reverse genetics. Reverse genetics is highly desirable in the modern genomics era; however, the most powerful methods are generally restricted to a few model organisms. Previously, we introduced a reverse-genetic strategy with the potential for general applicability to organisms that lack well-developed genetic tools. Our TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) method uses chemical mutagenesis followed by screening for single-base changes to discover induced mutations that alter protein function. TILLING was shown to be an effective reverse genetic strategy by the establishment of a high-throughput TILLING facility and the delivery of thousands of point mutations in hundreds of Arabidopsis genes to members of the plant biology community.


We demonstrate that high-throughput TILLING is applicable to maize, an important crop plant with a large genome but with limited reverse-genetic resources currently available. We screened pools of DNA samples for mutations in 1-kb segments from 11 different genes, obtaining 17 independent induced mutations from a population of 750 pollen-mutagenized maize plants. One of the genes targeted was the DMT102 chromomethylase gene, for which we obtained an allelic series of three missense mutations that are predicted to be strongly deleterious.


Our findings indicate that TILLING is a broadly applicable and efficient reverse-genetic strategy. We are establishing a public TILLING service for maize modeled on the existing Arabidopsis TILLING Project.