Open Access Research article

Energy status of ripening and postharvest senescent fruit of litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)

Hui Wang12, Zhengjiang Qian12, Sanmei Ma3, Yuchuan Zhou4, John W Patrick5, Xuewu Duan1, Yueming Jiang1 and Hongxia Qu1*

Author Affiliations

1 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, P R China

2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, P R China

3 Department of Biotechnology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510632, P R China

4 Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, the University of Queensland, Brisbane St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia

5 School of Environmental & Life Sciences, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia

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BMC Plant Biology 2013, 13:55  doi:10.1186/1471-2229-13-55

Published: 2 April 2013

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Sequence alignment of LcAtpB and AtpBs from other plant species. The alignment was made using CLUSTAL X software. Identical and similar amino acids are indicated by black and grey shading, respectively. The highly conserved ‘DELSEED’ motif is underlined. Abbreviations on the left of each sequence: At, Arabidopsis thaliana; St, Solanum tuberosum; Si, Sesamum indicum; Ma, Melia azedarach; and Zm, Zea mays.

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Additional file 2:

Cladogram of LcAtpB and AtpBs from other plant species. The cladogram was constructed with the neighbor-joining method using MEGA software with default settings. Numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrap values. A scale of distance was shown at the bottom. The deduced amino acid sequences of plant AtpBs were obtained from the following sources, with their GenBank accession numbers enclosed in parentheses: Koelreuteria paniculata, KpAtpB (CAB89921.1); Cneorum tricoccon, CtAtpB (ACZ73599.1); Citrus sinensis, CsAtpB (YP_740482.1); Melia azedarach, MaAtpB (ABU75138.1); Picrasma excelsa, PeAtpB (ABU75177.1); Sesamum indicum, SiAtpB (CAB65433.1); Solanum tuberosum, StAtpB (ABB90048.1); Arabidopsis thaliana, AtAtpB (BAA84392.1); Oryza sativa, OsAtpB (NP_039390.1); and Zea mays, ZmAtpB (CAA60293.1).

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Additional file 3:

Sequence alignment of LcAOX1 and AOXs from other plant species.The alignment was made using CLUSTAL X software. Identical and similar amino acids are indicated by black and grey shading, respectively. The key residues required for catalysis are numbered based on the Litchi chinensis AOX1 protein. Abbreviations on the left of each sequence: St, Solanum tuberosum; Ng, Nicotiana glutinosa; At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Pt, Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides; and Os, Oryza sativa.

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Additional file 4:

Cladogram of LcAOX1 and AOXs from other plant species. The cladogram was constructed with the neighbor-joining method using the MEGA software with default settings. Numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrap values. A scale of distance was shown at the bottom. The deduced amino acid sequences of plant AOXs were obtained from the following sources, with their GenBank accession numbers enclosed in parentheses: Nicotiana glutinosa, NgAOX1a (ABU24346.1); Solanum tuberosum, StAOX (BAE92716.1); Arabidopsis thaliana, AtAOX1A (NP_188876.1), and AtAOX1B (NP_188875.1); Citrus sinensis, CsAOX (ACE95101.1); Vigna unguiculata, VuAOX1 (AAZ09196.1); Gossypium hirsutum, GhAOX (ABJ98721.1); Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides, PtAOX (CAB64356.1); Daucus carota, DcAOX1a (ABZ81227.2); Nelumbo nucifera, NnAOX1a (BAH56640.1); Glycine max, GmAOX1 (NP_001236166.1); Oryza sativa, OsAOX (BAA28774.1); Triticum aestivum, TaAOX (BAB88645.1); and Zea mays, ZmAOX (NP_001105180.1).

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Additional file 5:

Sequence alignment of LcUCP1 and UCPs from other plant species. The alignment was made using CLUSTAL X software. Identical and similar amino acids are indicated by black and grey shading, respectively. Energy transfer protein signatures (ETPS) are underlined. Abbreviations on the left of each sequence: At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Rc, Ricinus communis; Zm, Zea mays; and Gm, Glycine max.

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Additional file 6:

Cladogram of LcUCP1 and UCPs from other plant species. The cladogram was constructed with the neighbor-joining method using MEGA software with default settings. Numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrap values. A scale of distance was shown at the bottom. The deduced amino acid sequences of plant UCPs were obtained from the following sources, with their GenBank accession numbers enclosed in parentheses: Arabidopsis thaliana, AtUCP1 (NP_190979.1), AtUCP2 (NM_125287.4), and AtUCP5 (NP_179836.1); Solanum tuberosum, StUCP (CAA72107.1); Glycine max, GmUCP3 (XP_003516932.1); Medicago truncatula, MtUCP (AES86982.1); Symplocarpus renifolius, SrUCP (BAI49702.1); Zea mays, ZmUCP3 (NP_001182792.1); Oryza sativa, OsUCp (BAB40658.1); Triticum aestivum, TaUCP (BAB16385.1); and Ricinus communis, RcUCP (XM_002520396.1).

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Additional file 7:

Sequence alignment of LcAAC1 and AACs from other plant species. The alignment was made using CLUSTAL X software. Identical and similar amino acids are indicated by black and grey shading, respectively. Asterisk indicates the mitochondria AAC signature motif (RRRMMM). Abbreviations on the left of each sequence: At, Arabidopsis thaliana; Rc, Ricinus communis; and Zm, Zea mays.

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Additional file 8:

Cladogram of LcAAC1 and AACs from other plant species. The cladogram was constructed with the neighbor-joining method using MEGA software with default settings. Numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrap values. A scale of distance was shown at the bottom. The deduced amino acid sequences of plant AACs were obtained from the following sources, with their GenBank accession numbers enclosed in parentheses: Ricinus communis, RcAAC (XM_002531865.1); Glycine max, GmAAC1 (XP_003546882.1); Zea mays, ZmANT (CAA33742.1); Arabidopsis thaliana, AtAAC1 (NP_187470.1), and AtAAC2 (NM_121352.3); Solanum lycopersicum, SlANT (NP_001234018.1); Medicago truncatula, MtAAC (XP_003627715.1); and Chlamydomonas incerta, CiAAC (ABA01103.1).

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Additional file 9:

Sequence alignment of LcSnRK2 and SnRKs from other plant species. The alignment was made using CLUSTAL X software. Identical and similar amino acids are indicated by black and grey shading, respectively. Regions 1–3 represent the ATP binding site, protein kinase activating signature, and C-terminal regulatory domain, respectively. Abbreviations on the left of each sequence: Rc, Ricinus communis; Gm, Glycine max; Zm, Zea mays; and At, Arabidopsis thaliana.

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Additional file 10:

Cladogram of LcSnRK2 and SnRKs from other plant species. The cladogram was constructed with the neighbor-joining method using MEGA software with default settings. Numbers at the nodes indicate bootstrap values. A scale of distance was shown at the bottom. The deduced amino acid sequences of plant SnRKs were obtained from the following sources, with their GenBank accession numbers enclosed in parentheses: Glycine max, GmSAPK2 (XP_003519175.1); Ricinus communis, RcSAPK1 (XM_002513909.1), and RcSAPK3 (XP_002517501.1); Zea mays, ZmSnRK2.1 (ACG50005.1) and ZmSnRK2.2 (ACG50006.1); Solanum lycopersicum, SlSNF1 (NP_001234353.1); Oryza sativ, OsSAPK3 (BAD17999.1); Arabidopsis thaliana, AtSnRK1.3 (NM_123306.1), and AtSnRK2.2 (NM_001203118.1).

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Additional file 11:

Appearance of litchi fruit with or without exogenous ATP supply before storage at 25°C for 6 days. (A) Untreated control; (B) treated with exogenous ATP. Numbers 0 to IV represent the pericarp browning scale: 0, no browning (excellent quality); I, slight browning; II, <1/4 browning; III, 1/4 to 1/2 browning, and IV, >1/2 browning (poor quality), respectively.

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