Open Access Research article

Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars

Ifigeneia Mellidou1, Johan Keulemans1, Angelos K Kanellis2 and Mark W Davey1*

Author Affiliations

1 Laboratory for Fruit Breeding and Biotechnology, Department of Biosystems, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001, Heverlee, Belgium

2 Group of Biotechnology of Pharmaceutical Plants. Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 541 24, Thessaloniki, Greece

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BMC Plant Biology 2012, 12:239  doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-239

Published: 17 December 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Table S1. Fresh weight (g), % water content, and total soluble solids (°Brix) in entire tomato fruits of ‘Santorini’ and ‘Ailsa Craig’ at different ripening stages. Ripening stages: IG, Immature Green; MG, Mature Green; B-1, Breaker −1 day; B, Breaker; B + 1, Breaker + 1 day; PK, Pink; R, Red. Results are represented as mean measurements in 10 tomato fruits ± SD.

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Additional file 2:

Table S2. Determination of L-ascorbic acid and glutathione during fruit development and ripening. Changes in total ascorbic acid (totAsA), L-ascorbic acid (AsA), total glutathione (totGSH), and glutathione (GSH) concentrations (nmol/gFW) during fruit development and ripening of ‘Santorini’ and ‘Ailsa Craig’ fruits. Ripening stages: IG, Immature Green; MG, Mature Green; B-1, Breaker −1 day; B, Breaker; B + 1, Breaker + 1 day; PK, Pink; R, Red. Results are represented as the mean of three biological replications. Statistical analysis was carried out for each cultivar independently. Means of each cultivar with the same letter are not significantly different (a = 0.05) based on Duncan’s multiple-range-test in SAS.

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Additional file 3:

Table S3. Non-radiolabelled feeding experiments with AsA precursor substrates. The effect of incubating with D-glucose (D-Glc), D-mannose (D-Man), L-galactose (L-Gal), and L-galactono-lactone (L-GaL) from the L-galactose pathway, L-gulono-lactone (L-GuL), D-glucurono-lactone (D-GlcUL), and myo-inositol (MI) from the alternative biosynthetic pathways, or AsA itself and DHA for 24 hours on total AsA (totAsA) concentrations (mmol/gFW) of immature green (IG), mature green (MG), and red fruit discs of ‘Santorini’ and ‘Ailsa Craig’. Results represent means of three replications ± SD, and asterisks indicate values that are significantly different from those of the control for 24 hours (t-test, P < 0.05).

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Additional file 4:

Table S4. Correlations between ascorbic acid and enzyme activities of ‘Santorini’ and ‘Ailsa Craig’ fruits during ripening. Pearson correlation coefficients between ascorbic acid (AsA), total ascorbic acid (totAsA), % dehydroascorbate (% DHA) and enzyme activities of ascorbate peroxidise (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and peroxidase (POX) in ‘Santorini’ and ‘Ailsa Craig’ fruits during ripening. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001, n.s. not significant.

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Additional file 5:

Table S5. List of primer sequences of the reference genes tested for stability across ripening stages of ‘Ailsa Craig’ fruits. The stability values for the reference genes were evaluated in ‘Ailsa Craig’ fruits throughout ripening using the NormFinder software.

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Additional file 6:

Table S6. Correlations between ascorbic acid and gene expression of ‘Ailsa Craig’ fruits around the breaker stage. Pearson correlation coefficients of the expression of AsA-related genes from biosynthetic and recycling pathways (listed in Table 2) measured at one day before breaker, breaker and one day after breaker stages, with ascorbic acid (AsA), and total ascorbic acid (totAsA) measured at the breaker, one day after breaker and two days after breaker stages i.e. assuming a delay of one day between gene expression and changes in fruit AsA concentrations. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, ****P < 0.0001, n.s. not significant.

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Additional file 7:

Table S7. Composition of the nutrient solution used in the hydroponically-grown tomatoes.

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