Exogenous proline treatment of anthers and pollen from p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 plants. To confirm a proline requirement for pollen development and functionality 10 μM proline was supplied either in vitro to germinating pollens (C,D,G,H) or in planta to developing anthers (A,B,E,F). While in vitro proline treatment of pollen from p5cs1 p5cs2/P5CS2 plants produces no differences in germination percentage (E, F), in planta supplementation gives rise to a significant improvement of germination efficiency (G, H). Bars = 50 μm. Values in (E to F) represent the means of four independent experiments ± SE.
Mattioli et al. BMC Plant Biology 2012 12:236 doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-236