Engineered anther ablation in the Pelargonium zonale PsEND1::barnase plants. (a). In WT anthers from flowers one day prior to anthesis, the locules were fully developed, showing the normal shape. (b). Transgenic PsEND1::barnase anthers showing collapsed structures at the end of a short filament in the place of a normal four-lobed anther with a fully expanded filament (c). (d) Viable pollen grains in a WT anther which are visible during anthesis. (e), No pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures developed instead of normal anthers in the lines carrying the male-sterility construct. The locules of sterile anthers from flowers 3–4 days prior to anthesis were narrow and unexpanded. In most cases, the undeveloped anther, composed of the ablated anther tissues, becomes a necrotic structure that never dehisces.
García-Sogo et al. BMC Plant Biology 2012 12:156 doi:10.1186/1471-2229-12-156