High-throughput SNP genotyping in the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus: assay success, polymorphism and transferability across species
1 EMBRAPA Genetic Resources and Biotechnology - Estação Parque Biológico, final W5 norte, Brasilia, Brazil
2 Genomic Sciences Program - Universidade Catolica de Brasília- SGAN, 916 modulo B, 70790-160 Brasília - DF, Brazil
3 School of Forest Resources and Conservation, Genetics Institute, University of Florida, PO Box 110410, Gainesville, USA
4 Department of Genetics - Universidade de São Paulo - ESALQ/USP - Av. Pádua Dias, 11 - Caixa Postal 9 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
BMC Plant Biology 2011, 11:65 doi:10.1186/1471-2229-11-65Published: 14 April 2011
High-throughput SNP genotyping has become an essential requirement for molecular breeding and population genomics studies in plant species. Large scale SNP developments have been reported for several mainstream crops. A growing interest now exists to expand the speed and resolution of genetic analysis to outbred species with highly heterozygous genomes. When nucleotide diversity is high, a refined diagnosis of the target SNP sequence context is needed to convert queried SNPs into high-quality genotypes using the Golden Gate Genotyping Technology (GGGT). This issue becomes exacerbated when attempting to transfer SNPs across species, a scarcely explored topic in plants, and likely to become significant for population genomics and inter specific breeding applications in less domesticated and less funded plant genera.
We have successfully developed the first set of 768 SNPs assayed by the GGGT for the highly heterozygous genome of Eucalyptus from a mixed Sanger/454 database with 1,164,695 ESTs and the preliminary 4.5X draft genome sequence for E. grandis. A systematic assessment of in silico SNP filtering requirements showed that stringent constraints on the SNP surrounding sequences have a significant impact on SNP genotyping performance and polymorphism. SNP assay success was high for the 288 SNPs selected with more rigorous in silico constraints; 93% of them provided high quality genotype calls and 71% of them were polymorphic in a diverse panel of 96 individuals of five different species.
SNP reliability was high across nine Eucalyptus species belonging to three sections within subgenus Symphomyrtus and still satisfactory across species of two additional subgenera, although polymorphism declined as phylogenetic distance increased.
This study indicates that the GGGT performs well both within and across species of Eucalyptus notwithstanding its nucleotide diversity ≥2%. The development of a much larger array of informative SNPs across multiple Eucalyptus species is feasible, although strongly dependent on having a representative and sufficiently deep collection of sequences from many individuals of each target species. A higher density SNP platform will be instrumental to undertake genome-wide phylogenetic and population genomics studies and to implement molecular breeding by Genomic Selection in Eucalyptus.