Table 1

Effects of experimental warming on Arabidopsis

Growth, physiological, biochemical and structural parameters

Ambient temperature

(23/18°C)

Elevated temperature I

(25.5/20.5°C)

Elevated temperature II

(28/23°C)


Life span (days)

76.2 ± 2.2a

71.0 ± 3.6b

60.4 ± 1.9c

Plant biomass (mg)

2128.0 ± 349.4a

2116.7 ± 337.7a

1378.5 ± 370.4b

Total weight of seeds (mg)

392.5 ± 110.7b

536.6 ± 139.6a

338.5 ± 114.9b

SD (number per mm2) on the adaxial surface

181 ± 13b

224 ± 15a

200 ± 14ab

SD (number per mm2) on the abaxial surface

206 ± 14b

265 ± 16a

214 ± 13b

gs (m mol m-2 s-1)

378 ± 24b

423 ± 28a

385 ± 21ab

E (m mol m-2 s-1)

7.5 ± 0.4b

8.4 ± 0.6a

7.7 ± 0.4b

A (μ mol m-2 s-1)

14.3 ± 1.1b

16.5 ± 1.4a

12.4 ± 0.9c

Soluble sugars (μgmg-1 DW)

38.7 ± 3.0ab

35.2 ± 1.3b

40.0 ± 2.0a

Starch (μgmg-1 DW)

61.4 ± 5.7a

53.7 ± 2.3b

48.8 ± 4.3b

Protein (μgmg-1 DW)

19.7 ± 1.9a

20.0 ± 2.3a

22.0 ± 2.2a

Chlorophyll a (mg g-1 FW)

0.93 ± 0.05b

1.04 ± 0.07a

0.84 ± 0.04b

Chlorophyll b (mg g-1 FW)

0.30 ± 0.02ab

0.34 ± 0.03a

0.26 ± 0.03b

Chlorophyll a+b (mg g-1 FW)

1.23 ± 0.06b

1.38 ± 0.09a

1.10 ± 0.07b

Chlorophyll a/b

3.1 ± 0.2a

3.1 ± 0.2a

3.2 ± 0.2a

MDA (nmol g-1 FW)

2.3 ± 0.2b

2.0 ± 0.2b

3.8 ± 0.5a

Proline (ug g-1 FW)

15.3 ± 2.1b

22.8 ± 3.2a

14.4 ± 1.7b

SOD (Unit g-1 FW)

295 ± 16b

347 ± 25a

319 ± 18ab

CAT (Unit g-1 FW min-1)

7.9 ± 1.1b

16.1 ± 1.5a

17.7 ± 1.9a

Leaf thickness (μm)

159 ± 14a

155 ± 14ab

146 ± 13b

Cell Size (μm2)

981 ± 398a

939 ± 372a

774 ± 337b

Number of cell layer

7.6 ± 1.1a

7.5 ± 1.2a

7.3 ± 1.2a

Number of chloroplasts per cell

8.5 ± 2.2a

9.0 ± 2.8a

6.6 ± 2.5b

Chloroplast length (μm)*

5.0 ± 1.3a

5.1 ± 1.4a

5.1 ± 1.3a

Chloroplast width (μm)*

2.3 ± 0.5a

1.9 ± 0.4b

1.6 ± 0.4c

Area of chloroplast profile (μm2)

9.2 ± 5.0a

7.8 ± 4.0b

6.7 ± 3.5b

Area per starch grain (μm2)

1.2 ± 0.7a

0.5 ± 0.3b

0.5 ± 0.3b

Ratio of total starch grains per chloroplast relative to chloroplast area (%)

29 ± 9a

15 ± 5b

13 ± 5b

Mitochondrial length (μm)*

0.7 ± 0.2b

0.9 ± 0.2a

0.7 ± 0.1b

Mitochondrial width (μm)*

0.5 ± 0.1b

0.6 ± 0.1a

0.5 ± 0.1b


Values (mean ± standard deviation) with the same letter are not significantly different at α = 0.05 by the Bonferroni t-test. *The length of chloroplasts and mitochondria is the longest dimension, and the width of chloroplasts and mitochondria is the widest dimension. SD: stomatal density; gs: stomatal conductance; E: transpiration rate; A: net CO2 assimilation rate; DW: dry weight; FW: fresh weight.

Jin et al. BMC Plant Biology 2011 11:35   doi:10.1186/1471-2229-11-35

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