Fusarium symptoms and penetration sites on Bd21 foliar tissue. a & b) FgUK1symptoms on Bd21 leaves after whole plant spray. Scale bars: k = 0.5 cm, m = 1 cm: early and late symptoms, respectively. c & d) Fg symptoms on intact Bd21 detached leaf: c & e) 96hpi, and d) 144hpi. Scale bars: c & d = 0.25 cm, e = 250 μm. f) SEM image of Bd21 intact leaf surface showing Bd epidermis cell types (bc: bulliform cell, mh: macro-hair, bmh: base of macro-hair, g: girder, p: prickle cell, hp: hooked prickle, s: stomata). Scale bar = 50 μm. g and h) Light microscope images of chlorophyll cleared Bd21 leaves infected with Fg UK1, 120 hpi stained with trypan blue. Scale bars g & h = 50 μm. i) Fluorescent microscope image of Bd21 foliar macro-hair base 96hpi with GFP1-Fc. Arrow head shows macro hair endogenous fluorescence. Arrows show GFP1-Fc fluorescent hyphae forming globose structures at the bmh. Scale bar = 50 μm. j) Confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) image of GFP1-Fc infection on intact Bd21 detached leaf, 72 hpi, showing chlorophyll-less cells above the vascular bundles and GFP1-Fc hyphae in the cell directly beneath the bmh (bmh not in focal plane). Scale bar = 20 μm. k & l) SEM images of intact Bd21 leaf infection with FgS1, 48hpi. k) Fg hyphae enveloping a prickle cell. Scale bar = 20 μm. l) Fg hyphae aggregating near the bmh, penetrating (arrow) and growing underneath the cuticule. Scale bar = 10 μm.
Peraldi et al. BMC Plant Biology 2011 11:100 doi:10.1186/1471-2229-11-100