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Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Research article

Hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid, decreases the oxidative stress produced by carbon tetrachloride in rat liver and kidney

Naveen Tirkey, Sangeeta Pilkhwal, Anurag Kuhad and Kanwaljit Chopra*

Author Affiliations

Pharmacology division, University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014, India

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BMC Pharmacology 2005, 5:2  doi:10.1186/1471-2210-5-2

Published: 31 January 2005



CCl4 is a well-established hepatotoxin inducing liver injury by producing free radicals. Exposure to CCl4 also induces acute and chronic renal injuries. The present study was designed to establish the protective effect of hesperidin (HDN), a citrus bioflavonoid, on CCl4-induced oxidative stress and resultant dysfunction of rat liver and kidney.


Animals were pretreated with HDN (100 and 200 mg/kg orally) for one week and then challenged with CCl4 (2 ml/kg/s.c.) in olive oil. Rats were sacrificed by carotid bleeding under ether anesthesia. Liver enzymes, urea and creatinine were estimated in serum. Oxidative stress in liver and kidney tissue was estimated using Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase(SOD), and Catalase (CAT)


CCl4 caused a marked rise in serum levels of ALT and AST (P < 0.05). TBARS levels were significantly increased whereas GSH, SOD and CAT levels decreased in the liver and kidney homogenates of CCl4 treated rats. HDN (200 mg/kg) successfully attenuated these effects of CCl4


In conclusion, our study demonstrated a protective effect of HDN in CCl4 induced oxidative stress in rat liver and kidney. This protective effect of HDN can be correlated to its direct antioxidant effect.