Changes of cortical DC-potentials induced by training: Auditory probe task. The displayed activation patterns are 'electrical top views' onto the unfolded surface of the head. Electrode positions are indicated by white dots, the color values result from interpolation including the four nearest electrodes for each pixel. (a) Initial DC-EEG in the 17 inexperienced subjects prior to first practice. Normalized data. (b) Activation changes (additional negative potential compared to the baseline (a)) after the first 20-minute practice. (c) Activation changes after 20.5 ± 7.9 days of practice (5 sessions). (d) Activation changes after 38.7 ± 11.6 days of practice (10 sessions). (e) group of 9 professional pianists (accumulated practice time = 19.4 ± 6.7 years) while performing the identical experimental paradigm. Normalized data. In (b), (c), and (d): Upper panel: Beginner group 1 ('map' group, n = 9), lower panel: Beginner group 2 ('no-map' group, n = 8). Subtractive data based on individual potential differences. (f) Color scale for normalized panels (a) and (e); (g) Color scale for subtractive panels (b) through (d).
Bangert and Altenmüller BMC Neuroscience 2003 4:26 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-4-26