Hypothesis of adolescent chronic alcohol consumption effect on SPIF gene down regulation in the dilated cardiomyopathy signaling pathway. Diagram was adapted from KEGG pathway (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/ webcite)  for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), showing the β1AR-DHPR-Ca2+ branch of the DCM pathway. Adolescent chronic alcohol consumption is hypothesized to result in the down regulation of SPIF genes (marked with grey color and solid down arrows), including β1-adrenergic receptor (Adrb1), Gs protein (Gnas), adenylyl cyclase 1 (Adcy1), and dihydropyridine receptor/L-type calcium channel (Cacna1d). The coordinated down regulation of these SPIF genes leads to impaired intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis at the cellular level.
Zou et al. BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:61 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-61