Sequestering circulating FFAs with BSA does not restore LTM failure in AAPH injected animals. A. Protocol indicating timing of injection and start of pre- and post-training tests with respect to the start of the first training session for both the conditioned (CS-UCS) and control (CS-DS) animals. B-D. LTM assessment in animals treated with vehicle-only (vehicle-vehicle), AAPH only (AAPH-vehicle), BSA only (vehicle-BSA) or injections of both AAPH and BSA (AAPH-BSA). In all control animals, rasping movements were similar upon application of the disturbance stimulus or conditioning stimulus (B). In contrast, conditioned animals, either vehicle injected or BSA only injected, showed an increase in the number of rasping movements after application of the conditioning stimulus (C). Thus, both the AAPH-only and AAPH-BSA injected conditioned groups, showed a significant reduction in their Δrasp values in the post-training test compared to the other conditioned groups. Animals injected with aristolochic acid only were not different in their conditioned response than the vehicle injected animals (D). This suggests that co-treatment of AAPH with BSA, does not reverse the AAPH induced adverse effect on appetitive LTM performance. **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.
Beaulieu et al. BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:56 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-56