Table 1

Studies included in the meta-analysis
First Author Year Sex (m/f) Task Paradigm Template Speech Presen-tation System Threshold Analysis N (foci)
1 Abrahams [22] 2003 14/4 p Overt Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.005 (uc) XBAM 18 (22)
2 Bonelli [23] 2011 11/11 p Covert MNI English Visually 3 T p < 0.053) SPM5 22 (4)
3 Brammer [24] 1997 p Covert Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.0001 (c) XBAM 6 (6)
4 Curtis [25] 1998 5/0 p Covert Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.001 (c) XBAM 5 (9)
5 Dye [26] 1999 6/4 p Overt Talairach English Auditory PET p < 0.05 (c) SPM95 10 (10)
6 Fu1)[27] 2002 11/0 p Overt Talairach English Visually 1.5 T p < 0.001 (uc) XBAM 11 (29)
7 Halari2)[5] 2006 9/10 p Overt MNI English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.05 (c) SPM99 19 (15)7)
8 Hutchinson [28] 1999 6/6 p Overt Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.05 (c) SPM96 12 (6)
9 Lurito [29] 2000 2/3 p Covert Talairach English Visually 1.5 T corrected 5 (15)
10 Nosarti1)[30] 2009 10/13 p Overt Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.001 (uc) XBAM 28 (4)
11 Okada [31] 2003 8/2 p Covert Talairach Japanese Visually 1.5 T p < 0.05 (c) SPM99 10 (8)
12 Phelps [32] 1997 7/4 p Overt Talairach English Auditory 2.1 T p < 0.0054) 11 (8)
13 Schlösser2)[33] 1998 6/6 p Overt Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.05 (c) SPM99 12 (41)8)
14 Weiss [34] 2003 10/10 p Covert Talairach German Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.001 (uc) SPM99 20 (8)
15 Weiss [35] 2004 9/0 p Covert Talairach German Visually 1.5 T p < 0.001 (uc) SPM99 9 (8)
16 Audenaert [36] 2000 8/12 p/s Overt Talairach Dutsh Auditory PET p < 0.01 (uc) SPM96 20 (13)
17 Heim [37] 2008 14/14 p/s Overt MNI German Visually 3 T p < 0.053) SPM5 28 (4)
18 Kircher [38] 2011 15/0 p/s Overt Talairach German Visually 3 T p < 0.0015) SPM5 15 (27)
19 Meinzer [39] 2009 8/8 p/s Overt MNI German Visually 1.5 T p < 0.056) SPM5 16 (14)
20 Meinzer [40] 2012 7/7 p/s Overt Talairach English Visually 3 T p < 0.0056) SPM5 14 (28)
21 Whitney [41] 2008 18/0 p/s Overt Talairach German visually 1.5 T p < 0.053) SPM 2 18 (30)
22 Amunts [42] 2004 5/5 s Covert Talairach German Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.05 (c) SPM99 11 (8)
23 Basho [43] 2007 4/8 s Covert Talairach English Auditory 3 T p < 0.055) AFNI 12 (6)
24 Gaillard [44] 2003 15/14 s Covert Talairach English Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.0001 (c) SPM99 29 (14)
25 Gurd [45] 2002 6/5 s Covert Talairach German Auditory 1.5 T p < 0.001 (uc) SPM99 11 (11)
26 Hwang [46] 2009 4/9 s Overt/covert Talairach English Auditory 3 T p < 0.055) AFNI 13 (6)
27 Krug [47] 2011 64/32 s Overt Talairach German Visually 3 T p < 0.05 (c) SPM5 91 (5)
28 Ragland [48] 2008 7/6 s Covert Talairach English Visually 3 T p < 0.055) SPM2 14 (7)

p: phonemic; s: semantic; uc = uncorrected; c = corrected;1)these studies seperately investigated the activation for easy and hard verbal fluency tasks, coordinates were included for easy tasks only;2)these studies seperately investigated the activation of females and males, coordinates were included seperately for males and females;3)family wise error rate corrected;4)ROI;5)Monte Carlo corrected;6)false discovery rate corrected;7)3 foci in females,8)12 foci in males;4)23 foci in females, 18 foci in males; MNI: Montreal Neurological Institut.

Wagner et al.

Wagner et al. BMC Neuroscience 2014 15:19   doi:10.1186/1471-2202-15-19

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