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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Testosterone regulation of sex steroid-related mRNAs and dopamine-related mRNAs in adolescent male rat substantia nigra

Tertia D Purves-Tyson123, David J Handelsman4, Kay L Double23, Samantha J Owens123, Sonia Bustamante5 and Cynthia Shannon Weickert126*

Author Affiliations

1 Schizophrenia Research Institute, Sydney 2021, Australia

2 Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney 2031, Australia

3 School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2031, Australia

4 ANZAC Research Institute, Concord, 2139, Australia

5 Bioanalytical Mass Spectroscopy Facility, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2031, Australia

6 School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2031, Australia

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BMC Neuroscience 2012, 13:95  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-13-95

Published: 6 August 2012

Abstract

Background

Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR) or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER). How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s) and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase). We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) and monoamine oxygenase (MAO) A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels.

Results

We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT) increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy.

Conclusions

We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting conversion of T to DHT and increasing AR mRNA. Further, testosterone may increase local dopamine synthesis and metabolism, thereby changing dopamine regulation within the substantia nigra. We show that testosterone action through both AR and ERs modulates synthesis of sex steroid receptor by altering AR and ER mRNA levels in normal adolescent male substantia nigra. Increased sex steroids in the brain at adolescence may alter substantia nigra dopamine pathways, increasing vulnerability for the development of psychopathology.

Keywords:
Sex steroids; Midbrain; Estrogen receptor; Androgen receptor; Gene expression; Adolescence; Schizophrenia