Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Neuroscience and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Decreased expression of extracellular matrix proteins and trophic factors in the amygdala complex of depressed mice after chronic immobilization stress

Soonwoong Jung, Younghyurk Lee, Gyeongwha Kim, Hyeonwi Son, Dong Hoon Lee, Gu Seob Roh, Sang Soo Kang, Gyeong Jae Cho, Wan Sung Choi and Hyun Joon Kim*

Author Affiliations

Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Institute of Health Sciences, Medical Research Center for Neural Dysfunction School of Medice, Gyeongsang National University, 92 Chilam-dong, Jinju, 660-751, South Korea

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Neuroscience 2012, 13:58  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-13-58

Published: 6 June 2012



The amygdala plays an essential role in controlling emotional behaviors and has numerous connections to other brain regions. The functional role of the amygdala has been highlighted by various studies of stress-induced behavioral changes. Here we investigated gene expression changes in the amygdala in the chronic immobilization stress (CIS)-induced depression model.


Eight genes were decreased in the amygdala of CIS mice, including genes for neurotrophic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Among these, osteoglycin, fibromodulin, insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (Igfbp2) were further analyzed for histological expression changes. The expression of osteoglycin and fibromodulin simultaneously decreased in the medial, basolateral, and central amygdala regions. However, Igf2 and Igfbp2 decreased specifically in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Interestingly, this decrease was found only in the amygdala of mice showing higher immobility, but not in mice displaying lower immobility, although the CIS regimen was the same for both groups.


These results suggest that the responsiveness of the amygdala may play a role in the sensitivity of CIS-induced behavioral changes in mice.