Effect of antioxidant and p38 MAPK inhibitor on bupivacaine- or H2O2-induced ROS level, caspase-3 activity and cell viability. Neuro2a cells were treated with EUK-8 (EUK, 100 μM) or SB202190 (SB, 10 μM) for 1 h, followed by bupivacaine (2 mM) or H2O2 (0.5 mM) for 9 h. (A) Intracellular levels of ROS, (B) caspase-3 activity, and (C) cell viability were measured (n = 6). **P < 0.01 and ***P < 0.001 vs. control (not treated with bupivacaine or H2O2), #P < 0.05, ##P < 0.01 and ###P < 0.001 vs. absence of EUK-8 or SB202190.
Harato et al. BMC Neuroscience 2012 13:149 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-13-149