Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Proliferative reactive gliosis is compatible with glial metabolic support and neuronal function

Félix R Vázquez-Chona1, Alex Swan1, W Drew Ferrell1, Li Jiang1, Wolfgang Baehr1, Wei-Ming Chien2, Matthew Fero2, Robert E Marc1 and Edward M Levine1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, 65 Mario Capecchi Dr., Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA

2 Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue North, Seattle, WA 98109, USA

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BMC Neuroscience 2011, 12:98  doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-98

Published: 10 October 2011

Additional files

Additional file 1:

p27 inactivation at the periphery and intermediate filament expression in p27L-/L- retina. (A-H) Fluoresence microscopy of retinas from tamoxifen control and p27L-/L- mice. Time after inactivation is specified for each panel. (C) Inactivation efficiency was measured by comparing the number of p27+ cells colocalizing with the glial nuclear marker SOX9. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD. (D) Mosaic of 20× magnification tiles illustrates the location of the central and peripheral retinal portions, and the optic nerve (ON). Abbreviations: p27, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; and SLC1A3, solute carrier family 1, member 3 (also known as GLAST).

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Additional file 2:

Upregulation of proliferative markers in Müller glia exclusive to p27L-/L- retina. (A-G) Fluoresence microscopy of retinas from tamoxifen control and p27L-/L- mice. Time after inactivation is specified for each panel. Abbreviations: ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; RGC, retinal ganglion cell layer; GLUL, glutamine synthetase; pHH3, phospho-histone H3; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen. SOX9, SRY-box containing gene 9; MCM6, minichromosome maintenance complex component 6; and DAPI, 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole.

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Additional file 3:

Ultrathin immunohistology of p27L-/L- retina. (A-D) Immunohistology and analyses based off epon-embedded, ultrathin sections (200 nm) and silver intensification. (A and B) Radial sections probed against GLUL. Somas and stalks were numbered in green and red, respectively. (C) Quantitation of GLUL+ somas and stalks in oblique sections. (D) Potential model of morphological changes in dividing Müller glia and daughter cell. (E) Radial sections probed against GABA. Abbreviations: ONL, outer nuclear layer; INL, inner nuclear layer; RGC, retinal ganglion cell layer; GLUL, glutamine synthetase; OPL, outer plexus layer; BCL, Bipolar cell layer; MCL, Müller cell layer; ACL, amacrine cell layer; IPL, inner plexus layer; and GABA, γ-Aminobutyric acid.

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Additional file 4:

Immunohistology in p27L-/L- retina and distal optic nerve. (A-F) Fluoresence microscopy of retinas (A-D) or distal optic nerve (E, F) from tamoxifen control and p27L-/L- mice. Time after inactivation is specified for each panel. CD44 labels the Müller glia microvilli at the outer limiting membrane. Abbreviations: KIR4.1, potassium channel, inward rectifier 4.1.

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Additional file 5:

Immunoreagents and their compatibility with computational metabolic profiling (CMP) or immunocytochemistry (ICC). Table listing immunoreagents.

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