Antioxidant vitamins reduced the synergistic pro-inflammatory activation on HBMEC in presence of THP-1 cells during TS exposure. Visual inspection and quantification of adherent monocytes showed a dramatic increase in the number of monocyte-endothelial bonded cells following TS exposure (Panel A). Leukocyte-endothelial interactions during TS exposure were prevented by pre-treatment with physiological concentrations of vitamins E and (to a lesser extent). Analysis of the medium content showed that pre-treatment with antioxidant vitamins tested herein also reduced the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α (Panel B1), that of MMP-2 and MMP-9 (Panel B2) and also reduced the MMP-2 and -9 activation (Panel B3). Note that the anti-inflammatory protection provided by pre-treatment with vitamin E alone and that of vitamin E and C combined, was significantly more effective (by magnitude and duration) than that of vitamin C alone. All the described experiments were performed in quadruplicates (n = 4). The asterisk "*" indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus control. Multiple asterisks indicate a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus other treatments. The plus sign "V" indicates a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) versus the control as well as all the other treatments.
Hossain et al. BMC Neuroscience 2011 12:92 doi:10.1186/1471-2202-12-92